Can Empathy Moderate the Interaction Between Anxiety and Indirect Aggression? Evidence-Based Study of Adolescent Girls


  • Rameen Qadeer BS (Hons) Scholar, Institute of Applied Psychology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan.
  • Faiz Younas Lecturer, Institute of Applied Psychology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan.
  • Vicar Solomon Assistant Professor, Department of Psychology, University of Jhang, Jhang, Pakistan.



Adolescent Girls, Empathy, Indirect Aggression, Moderation, Social Anxiety, State Anxiety, Trait Anxiety


The current study looked into the connections between adolescent females' anxiety, empathy, and indirect aggression. It was hypothesized that the three different forms of anxiety (i.e., state, trait, and social anxiety) would predict and positively correlate to indirect aggression while empathy would moderate this relationship. A descriptive-predictive research design was employed and a sample of (N = 210) adolescent girls between the ages of (13 and 18) years (M = 14.54, SD = 1.27) was taken through a non-probability purposive sampling method. Study variables were assessed through the short version of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), the Social Interaction Anxiety Inventory (SIAS), the Basic Empathy Scale (BES), and Relational Aggression Scale. Results showed a positive correlation among study variables and all three types of anxiety predicted indirect aggression while empathy moderated the relationship between them. This study was an empirical and research-based addition to the already existing indigenous body of literature regarding anxiety in school environments that could potentially cause indirect aggression among adolescent girls. Moreover, it provided insight into associations and predictions regarding study variables and filled the existing gap in the literature. These findings have implications within the fields of school psychology, gender psychology, and social psychology.


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How to Cite

Qadeer, R. ., Younas, F., & Solomon, V. (2023). Can Empathy Moderate the Interaction Between Anxiety and Indirect Aggression? Evidence-Based Study of Adolescent Girls. Journal of Professional & Applied Psychology, 4(4), 545–559.

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