Journal of Professional & Applied Psychology <p>An official journal of Institute of Psychological Research (Registered) that follows the open access model of publication. The journal accepts original articles, qualitative research articles, review articles including systematic reviews and meta analysis, brief research reports, case study artciles, viewpoint, and letter to the editors related to all fields of psychology. The Journal of Professional &amp; Applied Psychology has been <strong>recognized by HEC in Y Category</strong> and is included in <a href=";id=1021760#journal_result">HJRS.</a> The <strong>Policy Document</strong> of the journal complies with the standards of scholarly publishing set by <a href="">HEC</a>, <a href="">DOAJ</a>, and <a href="">COPE</a> and can be found <a href="">here.</a></p> Institute of Psychological Research (Registered) en-US Journal of Professional & Applied Psychology 2710-2785 <p><span class="fontstyle0">Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0) License: This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial 4.0 International License ( which permits non-Commercial use, reproduction<br />and distribution of the work without further permission provided the original work is attributed as specified on the Journal website at ( </span></p> <p> </p> Demographic and Clinical Profile of Persons with Substance Abuse Disorder Attending Happy Life Psychological Services Islamabad, Pakistan <p>Substance Abuse Disorder is a treatable mental health disorder that influences persons’ brains and behavior. It leads to an inability to control drug use, resulting in moderate to severe addiction. The research aims to study the demographic and clinical profile of persons with substance abuse disorders attending Happy Life Psychological Services (HLPS). A sample of 156 persons with substance abuse disorder was selected who were admitted to HLPS in the past two years. The study showed that 78.8% of persons with substance abuse disorder were males admitted at HLPS. In the reported cases, smoking, tobacco, opioids, cannabis, amphetamines, sedatives, hallucinogens, alcohol, and cocaine use was significantly higher in males, but inhalant use was higher in females. Middle adults were the age group where drug addiction was higher and mental health problems were most evident. Even medical comorbidities and suicidal intentions seem higher in this specific age group. In addition, married persons experienced more personality, anxiety, depression, and psychotic disorders than unmarried persons. The study outcomes can be used at the broader level to control the use of drugs in developing countries like Pakistan. Everyone is responsible for controlling the easy accessibility of drugs within the country especially, the Anti-Narcotics Agency should perform a pivotal role in this regard.</p> Naveed Sultan Shabana Noureen Anam Saher Copyright (c) 2024 Naveed Sultan, Shabana Noureen , Anam Saher 2024-06-30 2024-06-30 5 2 374 383 10.52053/jpap.v5i2.177 Job Satisfaction and Locus of Control in Mid-Career Professionals in Karachi, Pakistan <p>The current research was an attempt to explore the association between Job Satisfaction (JS) and Locus of Control (LOC). The gender difference in JS and LOC was also explored. For this study a sample of 421(211 males, 210 females) mid-career employees was drawn from Karachi, Pakistan. It was hypothesized that (1) Internal LOC will be positively correlated with JS. (2) There will be gender difference in JS, and (3) there will be gender difference in LOC. The first hypothesis of the study was proved. Results indicated that there is positive correlation between JS and internal LOC however the gender difference is insignificant in both, JS and LOC in the sample under study (i.e., mid-career employees of Karachi, Pakistan). The findings of current study offer valuable insights into the factors that impact JS, providing practical recommendations for organizations looking to enhance employee engagement and productivity.</p> Farhan Kamrani Asbah Zia Mahwish Mursaleen Copyright (c) 2024 Farhan Kamrani, Asbah Zia, Mahwish Mursaleen 2024-06-30 2024-06-30 5 2 384 390 10.52053/jpap.v5i2.289 The Battle Within: Confronting Teen Drug Addiction and Building Resilience <p>N/A</p> Iqra Tariq Copyright (c) 2024 Iqra Tariq 2024-06-30 2024-06-30 5 2 126 128 10.52053/jpap.v5i2.298 Body Image Concern, Sexual Esteem and Marital Satisfaction in Young Married Adults <p>This correlational research aims to study body image concerns, sexual esteem and marital satisfaction in young married adults. The sample consist of <em>N</em> = 163 young married adults from Lahore, Pakistan. The measures included Body Image Concern Scale (He et al., 2017), Sexual Esteem Scale (Snell &amp; Papini, 1989) and ENRICH Marital Satisfaction Scale (Fowers &amp; Olson, 1993) in addition to demographic information sheet. The findings revealed that body image concerns negatively (-0.34, <em>p</em> &lt; .001) while sexual esteem positively (0.42, <em>p</em> &lt; .001) relates to marital satisfaction. Significant gender differences revealed that men tend to have better sexual esteem (<em>t</em> = 2.90, <em>df</em> = 161, <em>p</em> &lt;0.01) and marital satisfaction (<em>t </em>= 2.01, <em>df</em> = 161, <em>p</em> &lt;0.05) than women. Increase in total family income, marital satisfaction tends to increase. The mediation analysis revealed that sexual esteem serves as a mediator between concerns about body image and marital satisfaction. The study implies potential development of therapeutic interventions for enhancing marriage satisfaction and addressing societal stigmatization of body ideals for improved marital quality.</p> Ahmad Naveed Afifa Anjum Copyright (c) 2024 Ahmad Naveed, Afifa Anjum 2024-06-30 2024-06-30 5 2 129 143 10.52053/jpap.v5i2.265 Impact of Caregiving Burden on the Mental Health of Caregivers: A Study of Individuals Caring for Chronically Ill Patients <p style="margin: 0cm; text-align: justify;"><span lang="EN-US">The present research aims to investigate the relationship between the caregiving burden and its impact on the mental health of caregivers of chronically sick patients. It was hypothesized that the caregiving burden would be positively associated with higher levels of depression, anxiety, and stress among caregivers of chronically sick patients; and caregiving burden would significantly predict the psychological distress (depression, anxiety, stress) in caregivers of chronically sick patients. A sample of 220 caregivers (<em>n</em>=220) was selected conveniently which comprised of 102 males and 118 females selected from the different hospitals. The study employed a correlational research design to collect data, using two standardized scales, the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21) and Zarit Burden Interview. The data were analyzed by using SPSS to investigate the relationship between the caregiving burden and the caregivers' mental health. The findings showed a significant relationship between caregiving burden and increased psychological distress. This implies that higher caregiving burden leads to higher psychological distress. The findings emphasize the importance of proper interventions and support facilities for caregivers. The study adds to the existing knowledge by addressing the impact of the caregiving burden. Additional research is needed to investigate the potential mediator or moderators of the association between the burden and the mental health outcomes, thereby improving our understanding of the intricacies of caregiving experiences. </span></p> Musfirah Mazhar Haziq Mahmood Martina Speck Copyright (c) 2024 Musfira Mazhar, Haziq Mahmood, Martina Speck 2024-06-30 2024-06-30 5 2 144 157 10.52053/jpap.v5i2.269 Suicidal Ideation, Hopelessness, Job Insecurity, Life Satisfaction and Financial Wellbeing among Employed Individuals <p>This study examined the correlation of suicidal ideation with hopelessness, job insecurity, life satisfaction, and financial well-being. Data was collected through purposive convenience sampling technique from 400employed individuals (M=220, F=180). The data was analyzed by using IBM SPSS Amos 23v and the results indicated the positive correlation of suicidal ideation with hopelessness (<em>r</em>= 0.46), positive correlation with job insecurity (<em>r</em>= 0.14), and negative correlation of suicidal ideation with life satisfaction (<em>r</em>=-0.25) and financial well-being (<em>r</em>= -0.19). The implications of a study examining the relationship between suicidal ideation, hopelessness, job insecurity, life satisfaction, and financial wellbeing among employed individuals are multifaceted and have significant repercussions for individuals, employers, policymakers, and mental health professionals.</p> Sheeba Farhan Komal Saleem Maryam Shafiq Ahmed Copyright (c) 2024 Sheeba Farhan, Komal Saleem, Maryam Shafiq Ahmed 2024-06-30 2024-06-30 5 2 158 169 10.52053/jpap.v5i2.277 Moderating Role of Emotional Intelligence: Exploring the Association between Personality Traits and Creativity in Young Adults <p>The paper looked into the potential moderating role that emotional intelligence might play between personality traits and creativity in young adults. The following hypotheses were put forth: a) personality traits, emotional intelligence, and creativity would have a strong positive relationship; b) personality traits and emotional intelligence would predict creativity; and c) emotional intelligence would moderate the relationship between personality traits and creativity. Using a non-probability sampling, 200 young adults (<em>n</em> = 100 women and <em>n</em> = 100 men) aged 18 to 35 years (<em>M</em> = 23.85, <em>SD</em> = 3.74) were recruited for this cross-sectional correlational study. Findings indicated a significant positive connection among personality traits, emotional intelligence and creativity. Moreover, neuroticism and emotional intelligence were found to predict creativity significantly. Lastly, emotional intelligence moderated the relationship between personality traits (openness to experience and extraversion) and creativity. These indigenous findings would have significant implications for young adults, researchers, counsellors, and educational psychologists for awareness, policy-making and further research endeavours.</p> Faiz Younas Maryam Khalid Shazia Qayyum Copyright (c) 2024 Faiz Younas, Maryam Khalid, Shazia Qayyum 2024-06-30 2024-06-30 5 2 170 183 10.52053/jpap.v5i2.291 Effectiveness of Indigenously Developed Clinical Supervision in Therapeutic Setting <p>Clinical supervision is a process in which a supervisor assists the supervisee in reflecting their own clinical work in a therapeutic setting. In this regard, cultural competency is important in clinical supervision and religion plays a substantial role in culture. Therefore, the American Psychological Association has focused on religion in psychology. However, despite acceptance of the importance of religious integration into clinical practice, very few psychologists receive training, which is important for addressing the integration of religious values in therapeutic settings. Therefore, the current study was designed to assess the effectiveness of indigenously developed clinical supervision, based on the general guidelines of the development model of supervision. It was designed for an inclusive environment that respects diverse spiritual and religious perspectives. The study included 15 supervisees who received clinical supervision from trained clinical supervisors who were trained on an indigenously developed clinical supervision model. Supervisors provided regular supervision to the supervisee over a period of six months. The effectiveness of the protocol was measured by using the Clinical Skills Assessment Rating Form (CSA-RF). The CSA-RF is 32 items scale, facilitating in the measurement of the effectiveness of the protocol in the five domains of demonstrating professional therapeutic engagement, creating a secure base, formulation, facilitating mutual understanding and session structure. The results showed that the supervisee who received supervision through the indigenous clinical supervision protocol brought significant changes in their therapeutic skills (<em>p</em>=.001). These findings have significant implications in the development and implementation of mental health services, particularly in therapeutic settings.</p> Shamsher Hayat Khan Muhammad Tahir Khalily Basharat Hussain Copyright (c) 2024 Shamsher Hayat Khan, Muhammad Tahir Khalily, Basharat Hussain 2024-06-30 2024-06-30 5 2 184 190 10.52053/jpap.v5i2.260 Influence of Parental Rearing Practices on Prosocial Behavior: The Mediating Role of Emotional Intelligence <p>This study aimed to explore the relationship between prosocial behavior, emotional intelligence, and perceived parental parenting practices in adolescents. The study employed mediation analysis to examine the underlying processes and mechanisms connecting these variables. A sample of adolescents participated in the study and completed self-report measures assessing perceived parental rearing practices, emotional intelligence, and prosocial behavior. The findings revealed significant positive associations between perceived parental parenting methods, prosocial behavior, and emotional intelligence. Furthermore, emotional intelligence was identified as a mediator between specific parenting practices (mother involvement, mother autonomy support, and father rearing practices) and prosocial behavior. The study also highlighted the importance of parental involvement, autonomy support, and warmth in fostering emotional intelligence and promoting prosocial behavior among adolescents. These findings have implications for interventions and programs aimed at enhancing emotional intelligence and promoting prosocial behavior in adolescents.</p> Sumaira Kausar Aqsa Abdul Khaliq Minahil Javaid Copyright (c) 2024 Sumaira Kausar, Aqsa Abdul Khaliq, Minahil Javaid 2024-06-30 2024-06-30 5 2 191 200 10.52053/jpap.v5i2.285 Urdu Translation & Validation of Executive Skills Questionnaire-Revised: A Self-Report Tool of Executive Functioning <p>Executive functions (EF) include skills such as working memory, inhibition and cognitive flexibility that are required for efficient functioning in all disciplines of life, be it personal, educational or professional. The assessment of EF skills using task-based instruments or self-report forms is a debatable topic in research arena. The current study focused on translation and psychometric analysis of a comprehensive yet short and freely available tool of EF skills; Executive Skills Questionnaire-Revised (Strait et al., 2019) in Urdu language. The study followed a rigorous tool translation procedure including forward and back translation. Data was collected from 294 undergraduate students; both boys (<em>n</em>=142) and girls (<em>n</em>=152) aged 18-21 years (<em>M</em>= 19.2, <em>SD</em>=0.98) enrolled in various public sector higher educational institutes of Lahore, Pakistan. Data collection was followed by analysis which included use of descriptive statistics to analyze demographic characteristics and calculation of Cronbach’s alpha of sub-scales to determine internal consistency. Item total correlation was then calculated. Analysis further included Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA). Results revealed the internal consistency of all sub-scales in acceptable range having Cronbach alpha value ranging from 0.72-0.80. CFA confirmed the 5-factor structure of the translated tool similar to the original tool. All fit indices were found to be excellent. Results revealed the ESQ-R Urdu as a valid and reliable tool to assess EF skills in student population.</p> Umme Farwah Attiya Inam Muhammad Abiodullah Copyright (c) 2024 Umme Farwah, Attiya Inam, Muhammad Abiodullah 2024-06-30 2024-06-30 5 2 201 214 10.52053/jpap.v5i2.295 Bedtime Procrastination, Sleep Disturbance, Fatigue and Mental Health in Female University Students: Mediation Analysis <p>This research aimed to explore the association between bedtime procrastination, sleep disturbance, fatigue, and mental health problems among female university students. The researchers employed a correlational methodology. A sample consisting of 182 female university students 59% (108 undergraduate) and 41% (74 postgraduate students) with age ranging from 18 to 26 years old (<em>M</em>=21.98, <em>SD</em>=2.17) from public and private universities through convenient sampling were asked to complete demographic Performa, Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Bed Time Procrastination Scale (BTPS), and Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21). Correlation analysis depicted a significant positive association among bedtime procrastination, sleep disturbance, fatigue, and mental health problems. Regression analysis revealed that bedtime procrastination, sleep disturbance, and fatigue were significant predictors of mental health problems. The findings of the Mediation analysis indicated that sleep disturbance and fatigue fully mediate the relationship between bedtime procrastination and mental health problems (<em>? </em> = .07, <em>SE</em> = .13, <em>p</em> &lt; .227, <em>R<sup>2</sup></em> = .70). These results can help university students who struggle with sleep deprivation, chronic exhaustion, and mental health problems. Students' lives would be better if they were more aware of the links between staying up too late, sleep disruption, and mental health issues.</p> Nimra Yasin Rehana Mushtaq Anum Karamat Copyright (c) 2024 Nimra Yasin, Rehana Mushtaq, Anum Karamat 2024-06-30 2024-06-30 5 2 215 223 10.52053/jpap.v5i2.271 Translation and Validation of Brief Adjustment Scale-6 (BASE-6) in Urdu <p>The current study aimed to translate and validate the Brief Adjustment Scale–6 (BASE-6) to measure the psychological maladjustment in adolescents. The present study further established the psychometric properties and the general utility of the BASE-6. The sample consisted of Adolescents of age (<em>M</em>= 14.61, <em>SD</em>= .968) of class 9<sup>th</sup> and 10<sup>th</sup> (<em>N</em>=150) who were recruited through purposive sampling. In this study the process of translation was done by following MAPI guidelines. Through confirmatory factor analysis, the study ascertained that all items in the translated questionnaire effectively aligned with the intended scales. Furthermore, an evaluation of convergent validity underscored the good quality of validity and reliability achieved by the Urdu-translated version of the Brief Adjustment Scale-6 (BASE-6)<strong>.</strong> The results demonstrated a high level of discriminant and convergent validity in the sample. The one-dimensional structure of BASE-6 was confirmed and factorial invariance was established. Therefore, the study provides strong evidence for the utility of the BASE-6 as a valuable instrument for assessing psychological maladjustment in adolescents, with a high level of discriminant and convergent validity.</p> Nazish Rehman Shumaila Tasleem Zara Asghar Copyright (c) 2024 Nazish Rehman, Shumaila Tasleem, Zara Asghar 2024-06-30 2024-06-30 5 2 224 233 10.52053/jpap.v5i2.276 Emotional Intelligence and Academic Self-Efficacy in Employed and Unemployed Students <p>Employment is one of the core behaviors regulating the modern societal structure. Research has shown that with the passage of years, an increasing number of students are getting employed and that there are numerous benefits and consequences of this phenomenon. Keeping this development in mind, it is imperative to study how jobs are affecting the students of our society. A sample of 250 undergraduate students was used, including 125 employed students and 125 unemployed students, ranging from the ages of 18 to 30 (<em>M</em>=21.26, <em>SD</em>=1.49). Data was collected using purposive sampling. The research was conducted using the Assessing Emotions Scale by Schutte et al. (1998) and Academic Self-efficacy scale (Ghafoor &amp; Ashraf, 2007). An independent samples <em>t</em>-test was conducted to compare the mean differences in emotional intelligence of employed and unemployed students. Significant differences were observed between employed (<em>M</em>=113.13, <em>SD</em>=24.37) and unemployed students (<em>M</em>=118.05, <em>SD</em>=19.47; <em>p</em>=.02). Students who were unemployed were found to have higher emotional intelligence than employed students. An independent samples t-test was conducted to compare the academic self-efficacy scores for employed and unemployed students. There was no significant difference observed in scores for employed students (<em>M</em>=113.45, <em>SD</em> = 13.43) and unemployed students (<em>M</em>=116.40, <em>SD</em>=11.66; <em>p</em>=.15). This study has both practical and theoretical implications for future researchers who wish to examine the role of employment in mediating other psychological constructs among university students.</p> <p> </p> Saood Belal Syed Easha Shahid Copyright (c) 2024 Saood Belal Syed, Easha Shahid 2024-06-30 2024-06-30 5 2 234 243 10.52053/jpap.v5i2.273 Terror Threat Perception and Coping Strategies among Individuals Struck by Terrorism <p>Terrorism has become an eminent topic of discussion in today’s world. The present study has aimed to investigate the differences between individuals from business premises and residential areas on terror threat perceptions and coping strategies among individuals struck by terrorism. Ex Post Facto research design was used for the present study. The sample comprised 281 participants from both business premises (<em>n</em> = 100) and residential areas (<em>n</em> = 181) where bomb blasts have struck. The mean age of the sample was 34.5 years. The Terror Threat Perception Questionnaire (PTQ-SF), Terrorism Catastrophizing Scale (TCS), and Ways of Coping Questionnaire-Revised (WCQ-R) were used to assess the present study variables. Findings depicted that residential participants perceive more terror threats than participants from business premises. Threat perception and terror catastrophizing also found to be higher in females. However, males were found to involve more in emotion-focused coping than females. Furthermore, individuals who perceive higher levels of threat were found to engage more in emotion and problem-focused coping strategies. The present study findings have implications for health experts and would assist them in designing and understanding the importance of therapeutic services by focusing on the differences in threat perceptions of the affectees.</p> Tehreem Arshad Aisha Sitwat Copyright (c) 2024 Tehreem Arshad, Aisha Sitwat 2024-06-30 2024-06-30 5 2 244 255 10.52053/jpap.v5i2.294 Impact of Quranic Verse on Gratitude and Stress Reduction among University Teachers and Students <p>The Holy Quran has a property to improve both physical and psychological well-being. In Muslim communities, reciting the Holy Quran is highly important and is viewed as a sort of religious treatment. This study was investigated whether reciting a verse of Holy Quran (Verse 11, Surah Zuha) on daily basis brings reduction in stress level by enhancing gratitude among teachers and students. An experimental research design was used to conduct the study. A total of (<em>N</em>=90) voluntary teachers and students were selected by using voluntary response sampling technique. Study was carried out in three phases. Phase 1: At Pre-Assessment level by using the six-item Gratitude Questionnaire (GQ6) and Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10) were used to assess the participants’ gratitude and stress. Voluntary teachers and students were divided into three groups. Phase 2: Implementation of Quranic Verse and daily blessings journaling assigned to group A for a period of three weeks. Group B was given only verse reading and group C was control group. Phase 3: Post Assessment level by using the (GQ6) and (K10) to see the gratitude and stress in participants. Pre and post testing data were analyzed through SPSS by using the paired sample <em>t</em>-test. Findings revealed the significant results of reading Quranic verse and writing blessings of the day but on control group having no effect. This indicates that verse 11 of Surah Zuha directly linked with gratitude enhancement. The conclusion of this study is that Quran having a positive effect on people mental health. </p> Ayesha Sagheer Sehrish Wazir Copyright (c) 2024 Ayesha Sagheer, Sehrish Wazir 2024-06-30 2024-06-30 5 2 256 268 10.52053/jpap.v5i2.251 Impact of Self-Oriented Perfectionism on Academic Engagement among University Students <p>This study investigated the relationship between self-oriented perfectionism and academic engagement among university students. Self-oriented perfectionism involves having exceedingly high standards and expectations for oneself. Academic engagement measures students' academic effort and investment both inside and outside the classroom. The sample size was justified using G*Power to determine the required number of participants. A sample of (<em>N</em>=550) university students aged 18-35 years,300 male and 250 female <em>(M</em>=75.25, <em>SD</em>=318.96) was recruited through convenience sampling. Participants completed two questionnaires the Self-Oriented Perfectionism scale and the Academic Engagement scale. Questionnaire data were analyzed using SPSS 23.0. The results showed a significant positive correlation between self-oriented perfectionism and overall academic engagement in university students. Self-oriented perfectionism also had a significant positive impact on students' emotional engagement specifically. These findings suggest that self-oriented perfectionistic predispositions may motivate greater involvement and investment in academics. The study provides insight for students, educators, parents, and counselors on how perfectionistic traits can increase academic engagement. Further research is needed to expand on these findings. However, this study indicates that self-oriented perfectionism may have some benefits for enhancing students' intellectual efforts and identity. Encouragement to adaptive perfectionism could be a potential area of intervention to improve academic outcomes.</p> Nazia Parveen Maria Anwar Khan Copyright (c) 2024 Nazia Parveen, Maria Anwar Khan 2024-06-30 2024-06-30 5 2 269 275 10.52053/jpap.v5i2.267 Social Media Addiction, Depression and Aggression in Young Adults <p>Social media platforms provide avenues for content sharing and online interaction. However, excessive usage, particularly among young adults, can lead to clinical challenges. The study aims to explore the relationships between social media addiction, depression, and aggression in young adults, specifically investigating whether depression serves as a mediator between social media addiction and aggression. Using a convenient sampling method, the study included 150 participants (got their own smartphone and use social media) aged 18 to 30 (88 men, 62 women). The researchers evaluated social media addiction using the Bergen Social Media Addiction Scale and assessed depression using the Beck Depression Inventory, and aggression was evaluated with the Puss Berry Aggression Questionnaire. Findings revealed significant positive connections between social media addiction, depression (<em>r</em>=.25, <em>p</em>&lt;.01), and aggression <em>(r=</em><em>.26, p&lt;.001</em>), the relationship between depression and aggression is positively significantly as well (<em>r=.35, p&lt;.001).</em> Depression mediates significantly between social media addiction and aggression as the direct and indirect effect are statistically significant. Notably, gender differences were observed, with women exhibiting significantly higher depression levels<em> (M=19.31, SD=13.61, p&lt;.01) </em>compared to men. The independent sample <em>t</em> test for employment status shows that employed participants score high on depression (<em>M</em>=16.67, <em>SD</em>=14.32) and aggression (<em>M</em>=75.12, <em>SD</em>=15.93) but unemployed were slightly more addict of social media (<em>M</em>=16.46, <em>SD</em>=5.23). The study discusses implications for fostering positive societal changes by addressing social media addiction among young adults and enhancing awareness on how depression interplays between social media addiction and aggression. The results offer recommendations while acknowledging study limitations.</p> Muhammad Sajjad Shahid Rida Yousaf Havaida Munir Copyright (c) 2024 Muhammad Sajjad Shahid, Rida Yousaf, Havaida Munir 2024-06-30 2024-06-30 5 2 276 285 10.52053/jpap.v5i2.297 Impact of Alcohol and Opium Use on Aggressive Behavior in Substance Users <p>The aim of the study is to compare the aggression levels in male drug patients who were taking alcohol and opium. A sample of 54 male drug addicts used in this study to compare verbal and physical aggression, hostility and anger. The Buss Perry Aggression Questionnaire was used in this study. The results of the study show the significant difference between alcohol and opium when it comes to physical aggression, verbal aggression, anger, and hostility. The result shows that physical aggression was higher in alcohol addicts (<em>M</em>= 29.00) as compared to opium addicts (<em>M</em>= 22.70). Similarly, verbal aggression was significantly higher (<em>M</em>= 12.14) in alcohol addicts as compared to opium addicts (<em>M</em>= 11.57). Likewise, anger was also higher in alcohol addicts (<em>M</em>= 16.86) than opium (<em>M</em>= 14.96). Furthermore, hostility was also higher in alcohol addicts (<em>M</em>= 21.28) as compared with opium addicts (<em>M</em>= 20.04). The results are significant in spreading awareness and developing optimal treatment plans for substance users. </p> Fozia Bibi Masood Nadeem Umbar Tayyab Copyright (c) 2024 Fozia Bibi, Masood Nadeem, Umbar Tayyab 2024-06-30 2024-06-30 5 2 286 294 10.52053/jpap.v5i2.286 Social Comparison and Disordered Eating Behavior in University Students: Mediating Role of Body Image Dissatisfaction <p>Disordered eating behaviors are more prevalent than eating disorders. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the link between social comparison, dissatisfaction with one’s body image and disordered eating, and whether body image dissatisfaction explains the mechanisms relating social comparison and disordered eating behavior. A quantitative cross-sectional research design was implemented to enlist 200 university students (80 males and 120 females) aged between 18 to 26 years, using a non-probability convenient sampling technique. Standardized assessment tools such as Iowa-Netherlands Comparison Orientation Scale, Body Shape Questionnaire-16B, and Eating Attitude Test were administered to collect data from study sample. SPSS ver.26 and Hayes Macro Process ver.4 were utilized to statistically analyze the collected data. Results revealed that social comparison are significantly positively correlated to body image dissatisfaction and disordered eating behaviors. Similarly, body image dissatisfaction significantly mediated the link between social comparison and disordered eating behaviors. Findings suggests an increased understanding of social factors affecting an individual’s thoughts, emotions and behaviors related to body image dissatisfaction and disordered eating behavior.</p> Saba Riaz Raheela Nazeer Aqsa Muzaffar Copyright (c) 2024 Saba Riaz, Raheela Nazeer, Aqsa Muzaffar 2024-06-30 2024-06-30 5 2 295 303 10.52053/jpap.v5i2.283 Impact of Achievement Motivation on Academic Performance among University Students: Moderating Role of Satisfaction in Romantic Relationships <p>The aim of this study was to explore the impact of achievement motivation on academic performance as well as how romantic relationship satisfaction moderates this relationship among university students. For data collection, a survey research design was used. A sample of 300 university students was chosen using purposive sampling. Participants must be 18 years old and have completed at least 14 years of formal education. For comparison, engaged students were also included in the study. Married people were not included. After explaining the purpose of the study, informed consent was obtained. The Revised Achievement Motivation Scale (AMS-R) and the Relationship Assessment Scale were used to collect data (RAS). SPSS and Process Macro were used to analyse the collected data. Academic performance was found to be significantly positively correlated with achievement motivation. Satisfaction in a romantic relationship significantly moderated the relationship between hope for success and academic performance. The current study will assist future researchers in concentrating their efforts on this sensitive topic that is prevalent in our society.</p> Maria Batool Sadaf Ahsan Javaria Sohail Copyright (c) 2024 Maria Batool, Sadaf Ahsan, Javaria Sohail 2024-06-30 2024-06-30 5 2 304 314 10.52053/jpap.v5i2.274 Development of Forman Malingering Scale <p>The aim of the present study was to develop a valid and reliable scale to assess malingering. The scale was developed using one of the contemporary models of scale construction. The study was completed in three phases. Item generation was phase I, which was completed in two steps; conducting interview of clinical psychologists having experience with both clinical and forensic clients, and step two was extracting items from existing scales after a thorough review. Initially item pool was reviewed by researcher for initial cleansing. Content validity was established in the second phase of the study through content validity ratio (CVR). In phase III of the study, the scale was administered on clinical and forensic sample using purposive sampling technique. The scale along with demographic questionnaire was administered on clinical (<em>N</em>=123) and forensic (<em>N</em>=19) sample. The mean age of the 142 participants was 32.7 (10.9) years. The construct validity of the scale was established through exploratory factor analysis (EFA) which resulted in 37 items distributed in three factors. Factor one was named as Perceptual Inconsistency and reliability established through Cronbach’s alpha was 0.93. Factor 2 was named as Imagined Inconsistency and reliability calculated to be 0.95. Factor 3 was named Cognitive Inconsistency. The internal consistency of the scale showed the reliability 0.97.</p> Shaza Azam Abia Nazim Copyright (c) 2024 Shaza Azam, Abia Nazim 2024-06-30 2024-06-30 5 2 315 324 10.52053/jpap.v5i2.261 Conceptualization and Manifestation of Anger in Context of Islamic Psychology <p>Anger is one of the most common issue of current times. A qualitative research was conducted to understand the concept and manifestation of anger in Islam as explained by Muslim Scholars and verified by original scripts. Constructivism research paradigm and Criterion sampling were used. 16 Muslim Scholars who has specialization in Quran and Hadith and have work experience of at least 5 years were interviewed. Thematic analysis was carried out. Scholars explained questions regarding concept of anger in Islam and its expression by quoting references and sharing incidents of Prophet and his companions that gave a comprehensive view of anger in Islam. Two major themes emerged i.e., conceptualization of anger and anger manifestation. Anger conceptualization was further divided into 2 sub-themes i.e., natural emotion and anger spectrum whereas second theme was categorized in 3 sub-themes of verbal, non-verbal and behavioral manifestation and expression of anger. Results showed anger as universal experience but it needs to be in balance and anger’s Islamic context. The study has important implication in field of Islamic psychology as it would guide clients about the Islamic concept of anger which can relate to them and their belief.</p> Rakia Ashraf Aisha Sitwat Copyright (c) 2024 Rakia Ashraf, Aisha Sitwat 2024-06-30 2024-06-30 5 2 325 341 10.52053/jpap.v5i2.284 Schadenfreude in Working Women of Lahore: A Phenomenological Study <p>Human beings have been gifted with a diverse and wonderful set of emotions. They have the ability to not only experience their own feelings, but also empathize with the emotions of others, such as being happy for someone who has conceived. Unfortunately, humans are not always moral or kind. Some people truly take pleasure in others' misery, as opposed to feeling compassion for them. Schadenfreude is defined as a feeling of satisfaction, pleasure or happiness brought on by witnessing another person's sorrow or misfortune. The present study aimed to explore the lived experiences and coping strategies of schadenfreude in working women. The sample consisted of six female faculty members which were recruited through purposive sampling. Phenomenological research design was used in this study. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with six faculty members. The data was analyzed using interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA). Two sets of themes emerged from data analysis. First set of themes was related to the lived experiences of schadenfreude. The superordinate themes included social factors, personality traits, biology and upbringing, psychological indicators and organizational influences. The other set of themes was regarding the coping strategies employed by faculty to overcome schadenfreude. The superordinate themes consisted of short-te­­rm and long-term coping strategies. The findings have long-term implications it will advance our knowledge of negative emotions and the effects of interpersonal conflict on job satisfaction, stress levels, and workers' general wellbeing and therefore help to promote teamwork and long-term prosperity for the organization.</p> Iqra Muhammad Ali Amber Baseer Mahnoor Ali Copyright (c) 2024 Iqra Muhammad Ali, Amber Baseer, Mahnoor Ali 2024-06-30 2024-06-30 5 2 342 360 10.52053/jpap.v5i2.278 Exploring the Experiences of Teachers in Online and Face to Face Classes During the COVID - 19 Pandemic <p>This qualitative study aimed to explore the experiences of teachers in online and face-to-face classes during the COVID-19 pandemic. The sample was consisted of seven teachers (<em>n</em> = 7) from Jhang, Pakistan, with diverse backgrounds in terms of age and academic disciplines. The data were collected through interviews, and inductive thematic analysis was conducted to identify common themes and patterns. The findings revealed several challenges and difficulties faced by teachers in online classes, including camera shyness, technological challenges, internet connectivity issues, lack of familiarity with online tools, equipment limitations, communication and engagement challenges, and cultural limitations. On the other hand, advantages of online classes were identified, such as increased reach and access to students and the introduction of new teaching methods. Teachers also highlighted the learning experience and adaptation in online classes, including learning new technology and tools and overcoming challenges to improve skills. The emotional and professional impact of online teaching was discussed, including concerns about job security, financial difficulties, decreased engagement and feedback, and a lack of recognition or rewards. Findings revealed challenges in online classes such as technological difficulties and lack of engagement, but also advantages such as increased reach. Teachers adapted by acquiring new skills but faced emotional and professional impacts. Comparisons with face-to-face classes highlighted accessibility challenges. Institutional support and ongoing training were crucial.</p> Adeel Aizad Vicar Solomon Muhammad Roman Copyright (c) 2024 Adeel Aizad, Vicar Solomon, Muhammad Roman 2024-06-30 2024-06-30 5 2 361 373 10.52053/jpap.v5i2.290