Journal of Professional & Applied Psychology 2023-07-20T12:23:31+00:00 Dr Ahmad Bilal Open Journal Systems <p>An official journal of Institute of Psychological Research (Registered) that follows the open access model of publication. The journal accepts original articles, qualitative research articles, review articles including systematic reviews and meta analysis, brief research reports, case study artciles, viewpoint, and letter to the editors related to all fields of psychology. The Journal of Professional &amp; Applied Psychology has been <strong>recognized by HEC in Y Category</strong> and is included in <a href=";id=1021760#journal_result">HJRS.</a> The <strong>Policy Document</strong> of the journal complies with the standards of scholarly publishing set by <a href="">HEC</a>, <a href="">DOAJ</a>, and <a href="">COPE</a> and can be found <a href="">here.</a></p> Role of Personality Traits in the Academic Performance of University Students 2023-07-19T12:14:42+00:00 Aaleen Shafaat Ivan Suneel Maryam Munir <p>This study aims to investigate the role of personality traits in the academic performance of undergraduate students. The participant sample consisted of <em>N</em> = 300 undergraduate students across 20 disciplines throughout the four-year undergraduate degree program at the university. A survey method was used to gather data from 300 participants on the variables of academic performance that were measured via the self-reported Cumulative Grade Point Average (CGPA) and the Big Five Inventory (BFI-2) for personality assessment as developed by Soto and John (2017). A correlational analysis between Conscientiousness of the Big-Five Personality Inventory and Cumulative Grade Point Average (CGPA) found a significant positive correlation between Conscientiousness and CGPA only. No other personality trait correlated to CGPA in the present study. The conclusion drawn from the present study is that high achievers have high levels of conscientiousness.</p> 2023-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Aaleen Shafaat, Ivan Suneel, Maryam Munir Lived Experiences of Adults about Religious Orientation and Spirituality 2023-07-19T12:13:44+00:00 Rehana Mushtaq Sayeda Salma Hasan Rabia Khadim <p>The current research aimed to explore the experiences of young and middle-aged adults having internal religious orientation and high spirituality. The purposive sample consists of 8 participants with a distribution of 4 young and 4 middle-aged adults. These 8 participants were drawn from a total sample of 20 participants, based on their high scores on a religious orientation scale, the spirituality wellness test. A semi-structured interview was designed, consisting of 23 questions based on previous literature. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) was used to analyze the data. The results of the study indicated that young adults who have internal religiousness and a high level of spirituality reported that humans suffer for their deeds. This research has wide implications in the field of positive psychology and the psychology of religion.</p> 2023-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Rehana Mushtaq , Sayeda Salma Hasan, Rabia Khadim Perception of Females about Marital Conflicts and Its Role in Mental Health among the Women Living in Shelter Homes 2023-07-19T12:14:11+00:00 Tooba Azam Ali Raza Siddique <p>Marital conflict is the phenomenon that involves the suffering of couples with a state of tension and stress as the couple try to carry out their marital roles. The foremost goal of conducting this study was to explore the perception of women about marital conflicts and how those marital conflicts relate to the mental health of women living in shelter homes. The design used in this study was qualitative and interviews with a sample of 8 female participants were conducted using purposive sampling. Individual administration was applied and emphasized sample’s willingness and cooperation. Thematic analysis was done. The result revealed eight themes i.e., Difference in Perception, Relationship Betrayal, Domestic Abuse, Physical Constraints, Psychological Imbalances, Social Influence, Behavioral Constraints and Internalizing the Blame which further revealed that women who suffered from marital conflicts reported poor mental health status and their perception about marital conflicts was quite negative. They totally blame their spouse and his family for every conflict. The current study has implications for the clinicians and researchers helping them to know about the perception of women about marital conflicts.</p> 2023-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Tooba Azam, Ali Raza Siddique Horrors of Cyber-Bullying: A Qualitative Study of the Victims of Cyberbullied Adolescents of Pakistan 2023-07-19T12:14:32+00:00 Samera Jabeen Neelam Ehsan <p>The present study focuses to uncover the psychological impacts of cyberbullying upon adolescents by qualitative interviews conducted through interpretative phenomenological analysis. A number of (<em>N</em>=10) adolescents from both genders were taken as participants to conduct the study. These participants had been taken depending on the severity of their experience and their willingness to contribute to this research. The age range of participants were from 13-19 years. Results of the present study indicated that an increase in psychological distress may lead to suicidal ideation because of cyberbullying victimization. The measures used in this research study were a demographic sheet along with cyberbullying interview questions prepared in light of bullying prevention guide (Ahmad &amp; Jandali, 2014). Themes extracted after the conduct of interviews were the hiding behind the screen, psychological problems stemming from cyber-bullying, bullies hide identity, cyber-bullying is worse than traditional bullying, cyber-bullying events experienced, emotional and psychological consequences for victims of cyber-bullying, common ways of cyber-bullying on social media, internet based technology to help cyber-bullying and avoidance of social media to prevent cyber-bullying. The existing data indicates the dire need to policy development and interventional program to handle the mental health issues among adolescents in Pakistan. It was also concluded that the victimization of cyberbullying is itself one of the major factors of suicidal ideation. Implications are discussed.</p> 2023-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Samera Jabeen, Neelam Ehsan Psychological Care of Alzheimer’s Disease Patients 2023-07-17T12:09:38+00:00 Bushra Akram <p>N/A</p> 2023-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Bushra Akram Development and Validation of Psychological Capital Scale for Dual Role Individuals: Further Evidence of Psychometric Properties 2023-07-17T12:11:11+00:00 Iffat Batool Muhammad Zohaib Khan Shah Rukh Tariq <p>The current study aimed to develop and validate the measure of psychological capital (Pychological Capital Scale; PCS)) for dual roles individuals. A conceptual referent theory of positive psychological capital anticipated by Luthans et al. (2004) guided for development of the instrument. Further, factor analysis and reliability of PCS were determined on the sample of 150 dual-role individuals belonging to various educational institutes, government and private organizations, hospitals, software houses, and private firms of Punjab. Additionally, 21 items of the PCS were subjected to principal component analysis and emerged four factors. Each item loaded at above .45 on four factors, labeled as Goal orientation (7 items; 31.07% variance), Optimism (6 items; 8.09% variance), Self-efficacy (5 items; 7.17% variance), and Resilience (3 items; 6.08% variance). The scale items exhibited a high level of internal consistency, which was supported by the reliability estimates of the alpha coefficient (<em>?</em>=.89) and item-total correlation (ranging from .29 to .62,<em> p</em>&lt;.05). The construct validity of the instrument was established with a Positive Psychological Capital (PPC) Scale (Luthans et al., 2004) and a Stress Scale (subscale of Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21) (Osman et al., 2012) on the sample of dual-role individuals. Additionally, confirmatory factor analysis of the measurement model indicated a four-factor solution for measuring psychological capital. Furthermore, the reliability and validity analyses of the scale demonstrated its high reliability and validity in assessing the level of psychological capital in individuals with dual roles. The scale's psychometric properties are further examined, along with limitations and suggestions.</p> 2023-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Iffat Batool , Muhammad Zohaib Khan, Shah Rukh Tariq Impact of Job Crafting Intervention on Psychological Empowerment, Work Engagement, and Affective Well-being in Teachers 2023-07-19T12:15:14+00:00 Asma Mushtaq Haziq Mehmood <p>Organizations are under a lot of pressure to survive in the ever-changing world of competition. Human resources are a critical aspect for which there is no substitute. Job crafting is a component that can assist employees to improve the positive aspects of their work while reducing the negative aspects' impact. The study's main goal is to see how a job crafting intervention affects employees' psychological empowerment, work engagement, and affective well-being. It is a quasi-experimental design including both experimental and control groups. The population consists of teachers. Job crafting intervention was provided to the employees. It consists of six core elements including three sessions and pre-post testing taking a total of the six-week time period. Pre-testing and post-testing were done by using the Job Crafting questionnaire developed by Tims et al. (2012), Psychological Empowerment Scale (Spreitzer, 1995), Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES; Schaufeli et al., 2006) and Job-related Affective Well-being Scale, JAWS (Van Katwyk et al., 2000). A paired sample t-test was run to see the effect of job crafting intervention on job crafting, psychological empowerment, work engagement, and affective well-being. The results were positive and significant. The relationship between job crafting, psychological empowerment, work engagement, and affective well-being was also assessed and there was a positive and significant correlation. The job crafting training can make it achievable to initiate employees’ active job crafting behavior and work engagement. Employers should recognize the need to assist and motivate staff to maximize their resources and meet their challenges.</p> 2023-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Asma Mushtaq, Haziq Mehmood Predictors of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder in Clinical Population 2023-07-17T12:10:09+00:00 Shaista Jabeen Saleha Tahir <p>The current study aimed to investigate the relationship of family environment and parental bonding with controlling compulsions (cc) of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). The study also aimed to investigate the predictive value of family environment and parental bonding for OCD. Sample consisted of 130 diagnosed patients with OCD (65 males &amp; 65 females) within the age range of 20-50 years. Three measures were used to gather data - Family Environment Scale (FES), Parental Bonding Instrument for Mother and Father (FBI-F &amp; PBI-M) and subscale of Obsessions and Controlling Compulsions of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Symptom Checklist (OCDSC). Results showed significant relationship between OCD cc and personal growth and system maintenance dimensions of FES (<em>r</em> = .28** and .21*). Negative correlation between OCD cc and overprotection/controlling in parental bonding of both father and mother was found. However, the relationship was not significant. Further, regression analysis (stepwise) revealed that personal growth dimension of FES and care dimension of PBI (F) were the significant predictors of OCD cc. Overprotection/controlling dimensions of FBI (F) was a negative predictors of OCD cc. Family environment is related with OCD (controlling compulsions). Furthermore, care dimension (F) in PBI is also related with OCD. Personal growth (FES) and father care is related with OCD cc. Overprotection/controlling father (PBI F) was negatively related with OCD cc. Personal growth, care father and less overprotection/controlling father was found to be the best model to predict OCD cc.</p> 2023-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Shaista Jabeen, Saleha Tahir Does Attitudes Towards Money Matter? A Mediational Analysis of Job Crafting and Job Satisfaction in School Teachers 2023-07-17T12:10:19+00:00 Faiz Younas Fareeha Kausar Vicar Solomon <p>The current study aimed to find out relationship between job crafting and job satisfaction in teachers and also to determine whether a teacher's attitude towards money had a mediating role between job satisfaction and job crafting. The following hypotheses were proposed: a) job satisfaction, attitude towards money and co-variances would likely have a significant relationship b) attitude towards money would likely significantly predict job satisfaction; and c) attitude towards money would likely act as a mediator between job crafting and job satisfaction. The sample consisted of 150 school teachers (<em>N</em>=150) with an age range of 20 to 55 years employed via non-probability purposive sampling approach. Assessment measures included Job Crafting Questionnaire (Slemp &amp; Vella-Brodrick, 2013), Money Attitude Questionnaire (Lay &amp; Furnham, 2018) and Job Satisfaction Scale (Macdonald &amp; Macintyre, 1997) with .91, .91 and .89 alpha reliability coefficient respectively. The data was collected online via Google form from the potential participants. Results revealed that the association between money attitude and job satisfaction is not correlated, however, there is a highly significant and positive relationship between job crafting and satisfaction with one's job. Job crafting exhibited a favorable and highly significant prediction of job satisfaction, however, money attitude has no significant results and so do not suggest any prediction of job satisfaction. Moreover, the link between job satisfaction and money attitude was completely mediated by the money attitude. For young adults, researchers, counselors, and educational psychologists; these indigenous results would have substantial implications for awareness, policy making, and future research endeavors.</p> 2023-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Faiz Younas, Fareeha Kausar, Vicar Solomon Prediction of Adherence through Illness Appraisal of Individuals with Diabetes: Role of Experiential Avoidance 2023-07-17T12:09:59+00:00 Amna Fayyaz Shazia Yusuf <p>In chronic diseases, illness appraisal and adherence to the treatment go hand in hand. Diabetes is a silent killer, and most of the time, the experiential avoidance of the patient leads to drastic consequences. The present study was conducted to investigate the relationship between illness appraisal and adherence, and the mediating role of experiential avoidance in this relationship among individuals with diabetes. For this purpose, the data was collected from 150 individuals with Type-I diabetes (<em>n</em>=71) and Type-II diabetes (<em>n</em>=79), recruited from hospitals in Islamabad using a cross-sectional research design. To assess illness appraisal, Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire (Broadbent et al., 2015); for adherence, General Medication Adherence Scale (Naqvi et al., 2018) and for experiential avoidance, Brief Experiential Avoidance Questionnaire (Gámez et al., 2013) were administered. It was hypothesized that 1) there is a negative relationship between adherence, illness appraisal, and experiential avoidance among individuals with diabetes. 2) Illness appraisal predicts adherence among individuals with diabetes. 3) Experiential avoidance mediates the relationship between illness appraisal and adherence among individuals with diabetes. Results indicated a significant negative relationship between adherence, illness appraisal, and experiential avoidance among individuals with diabetes. Results also highlighted that illness appraisal significantly predicted adherence among individuals with diabetes. Furthermore, experiential avoidance significantly mediated the relationship between illness appraisal and adherence among individuals with diabetes. Study results have important implications in clinical settings to improve the treatment process and consider all the other factors impacting adherence.</p> 2023-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Amna Fayyaz, Shazia Yusuf Learning Climate, Intrinsic Motivation and Psychological Wellbeing among Clinical Psychology Trainees in Pakistan 2023-07-17T12:11:21+00:00 Shumaila Rasul Elizabeth Maria Schwaiger <p>Self-determination theory proposes that satisfaction of the basic human needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness are essential for people to perform at their best across cultures. The study aimed to investigate self-determination theory in a collectivistic culture using the relationship between learning climate, intrinsic motivation, psychological wellbeing and academic performance. Students doing postgraduate degree in Clinical Psychology program (<em>n</em>= 150) with (females = 130, males = 12) were recruited from universities of Lahore, Pakistan. Path analysis was conducted. Path model I showed the weak correlation of learning climate with intrinsic motivation. Subscales of Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI) (interest/enjoyment, competence, perceived choice) showed indirect effect with psychological wellbeing whereas subscale of IMI (pressure/tension) shared direct effect as pressure among students in collectivistic culture was found to be affecting their psychological wellbeing. In Path model II, learning climate and intrinsic motivation showed indirect effects on CGPA. Learning climate of Eastern countries is more controlling so learning climate and pressure/tension directly and indirectly affected psychological wellbeing. The findings highlighted that students in Pakistan are not practicing intrinsic motivation to achieve academic performance. Therefore, needs of self-determination theory are not satisfied in academic performance of students in collectivistic culture. </p> 2023-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Shumaila Rasul , Elizabeth Maria Schwaiger Self-Objectification, Internalized Transphobia and Psychological Distress in Male-to-Female Transgenders 2023-07-17T12:10:51+00:00 Shaza Azam Sumaira Ayub <p>The present study was conducted to investigate the relationship between self-objectification, internalized transphobia, and psychological distress in male-to-female (MtF) transgenders. It was hypothesized that: 1) there would be a positive relationship between self-objectification, internalized transphobia, and psychological distress in male-to-female (MtF) transgenders; and 2) Self-objectification and internalized transphobia would predict the psychological distress in MtF transgenders. A correlational research design was used. A sample comprising of 136 MtF transgenders with an age range of 19-55 years (<em>M</em> = 34.46, <em>SD</em> = 9.09) were approached by employing purposive sampling technique. Data were collected from Fountain House and the Khawaja Sira Society of Lahore. A self-constructed demographic information sheet, Urdu versions of Self-objectification Questionnaire, Transgender Identity Scale, and the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21) were used for assessment. The results exhibited a positive relationship between self-objectification, internalized transphobia, and psychological distress in MtF transgenders. Furthermore, the results also displayed that self-objectification and pride and shame related internalized transphobia positively predicted the psychological distress in MtF transgenders. This study will contribute towards the development of program that will ensure lesser distress and improved quality life for the transgender communities.</p> 2023-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Shaza Azam, Sumaira Ayub Meaning in Life and Life Satisfaction among University Students 2023-07-17T12:11:01+00:00 Noor Ul Huda Bazil Lala Ivan Suneel <p>Previous research indicates that young adults experience an increase in life satisfaction when they have a meaning in life. The current study examined the association between meaning in life and satisfaction with life as well as the relationship between the search for meaning in life and life satisfaction. University undergraduates (<em>N</em>= 302) from Forman Christian College (A Chartered University-FCCU) filled out self-report measures. The analysis was conducted using demographical information, scores from Meaning in Life Questionnaire (MLQ) and Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS). Pearson Product Moment Correlation Co-efficient indicated that Satisfaction with life increased when there was presence of meaning in life. Additionally, search for meaning increased when satisfaction with life decreased. Lastly, an independent samples <em>t</em>-test indicated no significant gender differences in meaning in life. The research helps to understand the variables in a Pakistani context since the prevalence of meaning in life significantly differs across cultures. Future research may look into the sources of meaning in life, reasons for absence of meaning and other factors that affect life satisfaction in young adults. </p> 2023-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Noor Ul Huda, Bazil Lala, Ivan Suneel Adaptation of Hung Postpartum Stress Scale in Urdu Language 2023-07-17T12:10:41+00:00 Sehrish Wazir Saba Bashir Sidra Sattar <p>Postpartum period is one of the sensitive period in any women’s life. As Hung Postpartum Stress Scale is the effective scale that measures level of stress in postpartum mothers. So, the study was conducted to translate and adapt this scale for Pakistani population. The aim was to translate this stress scale into Urdu language and to establish its psychometric properties. 343 postpartum mothers from government hospitals of Bahawalpur were studied for this purpose. Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) was conducted and validity was measured. Test-retest reliability analysis was conducted which shows high value of reliability of the translated version. The reliability value is .90 which is considered as ideal value. In order to establish the validity, convergent validity and face validity analyses were conducted. Their results also support the acceptable validity of the translated version. This adapted version is easy to use for those who can speak and understand Urdu.</p> 2023-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Sehrish Wazir, Saba Bashir, Sidra Sattar Grit and Academic Burnout among Accountancy Students in Pakistan: Mediating Role of Academic Resilience 2023-07-19T12:14:21+00:00 Ayesha Khan Haziq Mehmood Sadia Huda <p>The intended focus of this study on the accountancy students in Pakistan is due to the pressure to excel academically combined with a heavy workload, high academic pressure and frequent examinations leads to high levels of academic burnout among accountancy students. The present study was carried out to identify the relationship between grit, academic resilience and academic burnout among accountancy students. Data was comprised of 400 accountancy students of which 202 were males and 198 females who were recruited through purposive sampling technique. Their age ranged from 19-26 years<em> (M = </em>22.09<em>; SD = </em>2.06). Three scales were used to collect responses from participants; Academic Resilience Scale (ARS-30) (Cassidy, 2016), Copenhagen Burnout Inventory (Campos et al., 2013) and 12-Item-Grit Scale (Duckworth et al., 2007). The correlation analysis revealed significantly positive relationship between grit and academic resilience while significantly negative correlation with academic burnout. Moreover, the linear regression analysis established grit as the strongest negative predictor of academic burnout while mediation analysis observed the role of academic resilience between grit and academic burnout. The present research is helpful in understanding the role of these variables and their impact on accountancy students. The findings of the study would help in developing effective counseling and resilience enhancement interventions to facilitate accountancy students to deal with their academic burnout.</p> 2023-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Ayesha Khan, Haziq Mehmood, Sadia Huda Predictors of Medication Adherence among Patients with Bipolar I Disorder 2023-07-17T12:09:48+00:00 Rameen Babar Shaista Jabeen <p>The present study aimed to determine predictors of medication adherence among patients diagnosed with Bipolar I Disorder (BP-I). Another aim was to estimate differences with different marital status in perceived social support, internalized stigmatization and medication adherence. Correlational research design was used and a sample of 103 participants was gathered using purposive sampling method. Data was collected by administering Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS), Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI), and General Medication Adherence Scale (GMAS). Results illustrated perceived social support (<em>R</em><sup>2</sup> = .46, <em>F</em> (3, 99) = 28.52, <em>p</em>&lt;0.001) and internalized stigmatization <em>R</em><sup>2</sup> = .49, <em>F</em> (8, 94) = 11.40, <em>p</em>&lt;0.001) to be significant predictors of medication adherence. Furthermore, it was found that married individuals with bipolar I disorder received more support [<em>F</em> (1, 101) = 4.08, <em>p</em> = .04] and were more adherent to medication [<em>F</em> (1, 101) = 6.35, <em>p</em> = .01] as compared to single individuals with bipolar I disorder. However, no significant difference was found between married and single patients in their experience of internalized stigmatization. Present study highlights the need for awareness campaign where individuals are informed regarding the importance of their support and also the need for educational workshops for skill building in patients with Bipolar I disorder.</p> 2023-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Rameen Babar, Shaista Jabeen Stress Resolution in Mothers of Autism Spectrum Children: An Efficacy Study of Healthy Lifestyle Practices 2023-07-17T12:10:29+00:00 Sadaf Zafar Samia Khalid <p>Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a disorder of developmental disability that affects not only the child but their parents too. These children need support in routine chores, education, and rehabilitation that are permanent stressors of mothers with ASD children. Present research is an effort to understand these stressors of mothers with an efficacy study of healthy practices in daily life routine. This research aimed to improve the life of ASD children’s mother through daily life style practices. Study was based on pre-posttest quasi experimental research design and purposive sampling technique to select the sample of mothers with ASD children. Perceived stress scale was used as pre and posttest task. Six weeks’ intervention plan of daily life practices were scheduled according to mother’s availability which contained guidelines related to healthy food, importance of nocturnal sleep, physical activity, stress management, social connection, and spirituality. Sessions were conducted individually with one-week gap. Results revealed significant positive impact of this plan on mother’s perceived stress. Mothers of ASD children reported low levels of stress after the modification of their daily life practices. Finding further elucidates the importance of healthy life practices as coping skill to omit permanent stressors.</p> 2023-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Sadaf Zafar, Samia Khalid Role of Smart Phone Addiction, Fear of Missing Out on Perceived Competence among Secondary and Intermediate Students 2023-07-19T12:14:53+00:00 Maria Anwar Khan Aftab Hussain Misbah Batool <p>The main goal of the study was to investigate the effects of SPA (smart-phone-addiction), FOMO (fear-of-missing-out) on PC (perceived competence) among secondary and intermediate students. The sample was comprised of 200 students from Multan's secondary and intermediate levels, their age range was 15 to 18 years old. The purposive sampling technique was used. The measure of smart phone addiction by Kwon et al. (2013) consisted of 10 items, Przybyiski et al. (2013) 10 items FOMO intervention, Ozer et al. (2016) PC (perceived-competence) scale consisting of 40 items were employed. Results indicated that smart phone addiction positively correlated with Fear-of-Missing-Out and had a negative relation with Fear-of-Missing-Out &amp; PC (perceived competence). SPA (Smart-phone-addiction) has a significant impact on the fear of missing out. Smart-phone-addiction has an insignificant impact on perceived competence of cognitive, social and physical subscales through mediating effect of fear of missing out. Smartphone addiction has a significant impact on perceived competence of general self-worth and learning through mediation of fear-of-missing-out.</p> 2023-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Maria Anwar Khan , Aftab Hussain , Misbah Batool Spiritual Health in Association with the Emotional Intelligence among Teachers 2023-07-19T12:13:57+00:00 Hamna Imran Saba Shabir <p>Education system has been changing throughout the world. There is need to have a focus on the ways or variables that have an impact on teachers or educational institutes. Spiritual health has been previously studied with respect to health or nursing domains. However, concept of spiritual health has not been explained much with respect to educational institutes. The present study investigated the relationship between the spiritual health and emotional intelligence among teachers. 250 participants (125 males and 125 females) were approached by multistage sampling. Cross sectional research design was employed. The data were collected using two questionnaires: Brief Emotional Intelligence Scale (BEIS-10) and Spiritual Health Assessment Scale (SHAS). The data was analyzed through Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. Results revealed that spiritual health has significant relationship with emotional intelligence. Analysis of gender differences revealed that females are more spiritually healthy as compared to males while emotional intelligence was not significantly different across genders. The study concluded that high spiritual health has been related to the emotional intelligence of teachers which is essential to improve the students’ academic progress. Teachers are not only delivering knowledge, rather they also learn on regular basis, having good spiritual health helps them to manage emotions appropriately which in turn enhances their learning.</p> 2023-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Hamna Imran, Saba Shabir Role of Socio-Demographic Factors in Codependency of Spouses of Substance Users 2023-07-20T12:23:31+00:00 Ayesha Abid Ivan Suneel <p>Codependency is considered to be a dysfunctional form infused with the extreme focus outside oneself. Spouses of male substance abusers derive the sense of purpose from the marital relationship, while neglecting their own self-esteem, personal life, self-worth and autonomy. It not only affects their psychological health but is also varied by a number of sociodemographic factors that may contribute to the functionality of spouses. The study aims to examine the relationship between demographic characteristics and codependency of spouses of substance users. Demographic characteristics included education of female spouses, types of substance abuse taken by the male spouses, family system, and profession of female spouses and socio-economic status. There was no significant correlation between the demographic characteristic however there was a significant positive correlation between age, duration of marriage and duration of substance abuse of male spouse. There was also a significant positive correlation between Education and socio-economic status, psychological and medical issue. The patterns uncovered showed to be consistent with the literature and paved way for future research.</p> 2023-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Ayesha Abid, Ivan Suneel