Journal of Professional & Applied Psychology <p>An official journal of Institute of Psychological Research (Registered) that follows the open access model of publication. The journal accepts original articles, qualitative research articles, review articles including systematic reviews and meta analysis, brief research reports, case study artciles, viewpoint, and letter to the editors related to all fields of psychology. The Journal of Professional &amp; Applied Psychology has been <strong>recognized by HEC in Y Category</strong> and is included in <a href=";id=1021760#journal_result">HJRS.</a> The <strong>Policy Document</strong> of the journal complies with the standards of scholarly publishing set by <a href="">HEC</a>, <a href="">DOAJ</a>, and <a href="">COPE</a> and can be found <a href="">here.</a></p> en-US <p><span class="fontstyle0">Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0) License: This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial 4.0 International License ( which permits non-Commercial use, reproduction<br />and distribution of the work without further permission provided the original work is attributed as specified on the Journal website at ( </span></p> <p> </p> (Prof Dr Ahmad Bilal) (Prof Dr Ahmad Bilal) Sun, 31 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 A Holistic Perspective towards Perils of and Pathways to Addiction Recovery in Pakistan: Exploring Indigenous Factors <p>A multi-angled approach and formation of a holistic body of insights about drug addiction relapse and recovery is the key objective of this qualitative study. Based on a Constructivist Grounded Theory methodology, a total 40 semi-structured interviews were conducted from 10 recovering persons, 10 relapsed person and 10 chief caregivers of each set of recovering and relapsed persons. Out 20 recovering and relapsed persons, 7 were within age of 18-25, 10 were within 26-35 years of age and 3 respondents were over 35 years of age. Their respective 20 chief caregivers included their parents, siblings, spouses and case managers. Furthermore, 2 Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) were conducted having 4 participants i.e., Psychiatrists, Psychologists, Psychotherapists and Case Managers hailing from Drug Rehab Centers in each group. The digitally recorded interviews were transcribed/translated and further analyzed in NVIVO – Windows. Following the processes of Open, Axial and Selective Coding, five core categories of Familial, Personal, Socio-cultural, Psycho-emotive and Treatment Factors emerged to form the theoretical framework of the substantive grounded theory titled as <em>Perils of and Pathways to Addiction Recovery</em>. The theory connects various dimensions of the causal factors and recovery-assuring remedial measures. This framework serves as an indigenous work for developing policy, interventions and treatment. This study reveals contributing factors for the efficacy of different treatment approaches and practices in Pakistan. This five factor theoretical model has high-resolution data driven insights collected from all possible stakeholders of the eco system of falling prey to addiction and recovering from it.</p> Muhammad Yasir Masood Afaq, Tasnim Rehna , Arif Nadeem Copyright (c) 2023 Muhammad Yasir Masood Afaq, Tasnim Rehna , Arif Nadeem Sun, 31 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Challenges Confronting Women Entrepreneurs: An Exploratory Study <p>Women entrepreneurs encounter several hurdles and barriers that restrict their business success and limit their economic contributions. This qualitative study investigated the specific challenges faced by female entrepreneurs in district Jhang, Punjab, Pakistan, with a focus on their experiences in beginning and establishing businesses. Purposive sampling technique was used for data collection via one-on-one interviews with 11 female entrepreneurs (<em>n</em>=11) from various industries aged between 20 and 65 (<em>M </em>= 33.36, <em>SD</em> = 12.77). Thematic Analysis was employed to analyze the data. Initially, common themes were collected, and these common themes were then examined to identify repeating patterns and superordinate and subordinate themes were extracted from the reduced themes. The findings of the study reveal several key challenges that hinder the entrepreneurial success of women. Cultural factors emerged as significant barriers, with limited support and recognition being a recurring theme. Cultural barriers such as limited support and recognition, societal biases and resistance from family and community are among these challenges. The findings emphasized the importance of providing targeted support and interventions to overcome these issues and boost the success of women-owned companies. Pakistan can leverage the full potential of women's entrepreneurship for economic growth and development by empowering women entrepreneurs and establishing an enabling environment.</p> Maham Tahir, Faiz Younas, Vicar Solomon Copyright (c) 2023 Maham Tahir, Faiz Younas, Vicar Solomon Sun, 31 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Workplace Stress and Mental Health Issues among Police Personnel: Analyzing the Effects of Personal Protective Factors <p>The major goal of the research is to examine the relationship between workplace stress and the commonality of mental disorders in the Pakistani police officers. Furthermore, effects of protective factors are also investigated in the context of mediators and moderators. Employing the survey method, 820 police officers aged 20-60 years and selected through purposive sampling technique provided data on the questionnaires of workplace stress, mental health, emotional intelligence, resilience and interpersonal tolerance. The data were analyzed through Hayes Process Macro Model 21 on Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS), version 21. Findings revealed that a majority of the participants in the study reported significant levels of workplace stress, hence, low level of mental health. The Hayes process macro allows for the implementation of multiple moderation and mediation analyses. In the model 21, it was found that emotional intelligence does not act as a mediator between workplace stress and mental health. However, interpersonal tolerance was found to moderate the relationship between emotional intelligence and mental health disorders. This suggests that interpersonal tolerance influences the link between emotional intelligence and mental health problems. Additionally, the causal relationship between workplace stress and emotional intelligence is not moderated by resilience. On the basis of these findings, the police department should implement the strategies to address the work-related stress and psychological health to enhance the overall well-being of police personnel.</p> Shahnoor Sarfraz, Sarwat Sultan, Humaira Latif Copyright (c) 2024 Shahnoor Sarfraz, Sarwat Sultan, Humaira Latif Sun, 31 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Development and Validation of Female Psychosexual Problems Scale (FPPS) <p>The goal of the current study was to address married women's psychosexual difficulties in the context of Pakistani culture. Semi structured interviews were conducted on 35 married females as part of the study's initial phase in order to explore phenomenology, and 34 items were created as a result. Furthermore, 34 items were initially provided to experts for the evaluation of content validity. Repetitive statements were discarded after evaluation, and a scale of 32 items was kept and approved by professionals related to psychology field. 160 married female participants were given the final 32 item scale for data collection. Factor analysis revealed a strong KMO value, and Bartlett's test of sphericity revealed a substantial connection between the items. Kaiser's criteria were used to conduct a one factor analysis and only factors with Eigen values of .4 or higher were kept, while factors with Eigen values lower than .4 were removed from the sample. Three key themes found were problems with relationships, personal suffering, and religious concerns by component analysis. Data from sample of 50 married females underwent Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) to verify the variables identified through Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA), which overall demonstrated a strong construct validity of the scale and model fit. The constructed scale's Cronbach alpha value of .97 indicates a significant inter-item correlation. The research demonstrates information on a wide range of interventions.</p> Haleema Adnan, Samina Rashid, Noman Aftab Copyright (c) 2024 Haleema Adnan, Samina Rashid, Noman Aftab Sun, 31 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Relationship between Vaccine Hesitancy and Psychological Distress in Elderly Population of South Punjab <p>Vaccines have eliminated and prevented several deadly diseases, yet they face skepticism from the public. This research aimed to find the moderating role of optimism in elderly people on the relationship between vaccine skepticism of COVID-19 booster dose and the psychological distress because of it. The purpose of this research was to find out hesitant attitude of elders towards COVID-19 booster dose, explore level of psychological distress among elderly people who were already vaccinated and find out life optimism among elderly people (age range of 45-65 years, <em>M</em>=55.75, <em>SD</em>=6.51). Correlational research design and systematic random sampling technique were used to collect data from elders (<em>n</em>=427, M= 264, F=161). The data was collected from different cities of Punjab province namely Muzaffargarh, Lodhran, Multan, and Bahawalpur. Vaccine skepticism, psychological distress and optimism were checked using “Oxford COVID-19 Scale of Vaccine Hesitancy, Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K-10) and Revised Life Orientation Test (LOT-R). Data was analysed using Correlation<em>, t</em> test, and <em>ANOVA</em>. The results found a positive relationship between psychological distress and life orientation. On the other hand, vaccine hesitancy was found to be negatively correlated with psychological distress and life orientation. The males were found high on vaccine hesitancy and psychological distress. People above age 60 years had lowest psychological distress.</p> Zunaira Mubeen, Ammara Noor , Arif Nadeem Copyright (c) 2024 Zunaira Mubeen, Ammara Noor , Arif Nadeem Sun, 31 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Impact of Locus of Control on Brand Loyalty in the Adults of Karachi, Pakistan <p>The current study was an attempt to investigate the relationship between locus of control and brand loyalty. To know the predictive relationship between these variables, a stratified sample of 400 adult participants (200 male, 200 female) aged between 20-40 years was asked to complete scales for measuring the locus of control scale (Levenson, 1973) and brand loyalty scale (Sheth et al., 1999). Simple linear regression analysis reveals that locus of control (internal or external) is a significant predictor of brand loyalty. If the internal locus of control is higher in an individual, their brand loyalty will subsequently be less or decreased. External locus of control would mean higher brand loyalty.</p> Farhan Kamrani, Farrukh Kamrani, Nabila Kamrani Copyright (c) 2024 Farhan Kamrani, Farrukh Kamrani, Nabila Kamrani Sun, 31 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Academic Performance and Internet Gaming Disorder: A Cross-Sectional Study <p>In recent years, Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) has become a global issue as people have gotten overly enthusiastic about playing excessive internet games. Adolescents who play excessively on the internet develop IGD, which impacts their academic performance. In the present study, a comparative research design has opted to explore the impact of IGD across gender, academic performance, and adolescence. A total of 357 adolescents (males = 220, females = 137) from various private schools and colleges of Rawalpindi and Islamabad were selected to obtain data on Internet Gaming Disorder Scale 9- Short Form (IGDS9-SF). The results of one-way ANOVA showed a significant <em>main effect</em> of IGD across gender (males &amp; females). They indicated the evidence of the significance of the main effect for the assessment of IGD with <em>F (1,355) = 11.36, p=.001</em><em>.</em> The results of two-way mixed factorial ANCOVA showed that there is a significant main effect for IGD across Academic Performance Groups (A, B, C, D &amp; F grades). They indicated the evidence of the significance of the main effect for the assessment of IGD with <em>(F (4,352) = [9.806], p&lt;.001). </em>Further results of two-way mixed factorial ANCOVA showed that there is a significant main effect for IGD across Groups (early &amp; late adolescence). They indicated the evidence of the significance of the main effect for the assessment of IGD with <em>F (1,355) = 6.594, p= .011</em>. These findings may aid in the development of a policy for the efficient use of the Internet, as well as the development of awareness programs to educate parents about the harmful use of Internet games, as well as the identification and formulation of intervention plans for adolescents suffering from IGD symptoms and performing poorly in school.</p> Ambreen Fatima, Rizwana Amin Copyright (c) 2024 Ambreen Fatima, Rizwana Amin Sun, 31 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Can Empathy Moderate the Interaction Between Anxiety and Indirect Aggression? Evidence-Based Study of Adolescent Girls <p>The current study looked into the connections between adolescent females' anxiety, empathy, and indirect aggression. It was hypothesized that the three different forms of anxiety (i.e., state, trait, and social anxiety) would predict and positively correlate to indirect aggression while empathy would moderate this relationship. A descriptive-predictive research design was employed and a sample of (<em>N</em> = 210) adolescent girls between the ages of (13 and 18) years (<em>M</em> = 14.54, <em>SD</em> = 1.27) was taken through a non-probability purposive sampling method. Study variables were assessed through the short version of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), the Social Interaction Anxiety Inventory (SIAS), the Basic Empathy Scale (BES), and Relational Aggression Scale. Results showed a positive correlation among study variables and all three types of anxiety predicted indirect aggression while empathy moderated the relationship between them. This study was an empirical and research-based addition to the already existing indigenous body of literature regarding anxiety in school environments that could potentially cause indirect aggression among adolescent girls. Moreover, it provided insight into associations and predictions regarding study variables and filled the existing gap in the literature. These findings have implications within the fields of school psychology, gender psychology, and social psychology.</p> Rameen Qadeer, Faiz Younas, Vicar Solomon Copyright (c) 2023 Rameen Qadeer, Faiz Younas, Vicar Solomon Sun, 31 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Perceived Acceptance of Maternal Trust and Self-Oriented Perfectionism among High School Students <p>Maternal trust plays a central role in shaping various aspects of a individuals’ life whereas self-oriented perfectionism creates valuable insights and provides a better understanding of human behavior, motivation, and well-being. The current study aims to identify the correlation between perceived acceptance of maternal trust and self-oriented perfectionism in high school students. It also intends to measure differences of gender and public &amp; private school affiliation in terms of perceived acceptance of maternal trust and self-oriented perfectionism among high school students. This study is comprised of a sample of 300 high school students (Male=150 and Female=150) from various educational institutions in Bahawalpur, Pakistan. In this quantitative, cross-sectional research design, data is collected by using a convenient sampling technique. Data was collected by using a set of questionnaires that included informed consent, a demographic sheet, The Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment ([IPP] Gullone &amp; Robinson, 2005) and the Child Adolescent Perfectionism Scale (Hewitt &amp; Flett, 1991). The results of this study conclude a significant correlation between of maternal trust with self-oriented perfectionism. It is also found that the level of self-oriented perfectionism is higher among high school girls as compared to high school boys. The implications of these findings are reflective, as addressing the issue of self-oriented perfectionism in high school students can lead to improved well-being and better academic achievement.</p> Momina Khushnood, Rimsha Irshad Copyright (c) 2023 Momina Khushnood, Rimsha Irshad Sun, 31 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Demographic Predictors of Conflict Resolution Styles Among Pakistani Adults <p>This research explores the intricate interplay between demographic factors and conflict resolution styles seeking to unravel how age, gender, educational level, and employment status influence individuals' approaches to conflict management. A cross-sectional design was employed to analyze data collected from 366 participants in diverse cities across Pakistan. Correlation and regression analyses revealed significant associations between demographic variables and conflict resolution styles. Age exhibited a positive correlation with Collaborating (<em>r</em> = 0.43, <em>p</em> &lt; 0.001) and a negative correlation with Avoiding (<em>r</em> = -0.19, <em>p</em> &lt; 0.01), highlighting generational differences in preferences. Females displayed a mild negative correlation with Collaborating (<em>r</em> = -0.19, <em>p</em> &lt; 0.01) and Compromising (<em>r</em> = -0.12, <em>p</em> &lt; 0.05). Multiple linear regression indicated that age positively predicted Collaborating (? = 0.20, <em>p</em> = 0.001), while gender negatively predicted Compromising (? = -0.11, <em>p</em> = 0.03). Educational level and employment status displayed mixed relationships with conflict resolution styles. These findings underscore the complex interplay between demographic factors and conflict resolution preferences, offering insights for tailored interventions and training programs to foster effective communication and cooperation. While this study contributes to the understanding of conflict resolution dynamics, future research should consider longitudinal designs and broader cultural contexts to enhance the generalizability of findings.</p> Mehwish Jabeen, Mafia Shahzadi, Zobia Amin Copyright (c) 2023 Mehwish Jabeen, Mafia Shahzadi, Zobia Amin Sun, 31 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Mediating Effect of Self-Efficacy on Social Media Addiction, Appearance-Related Consciousness, and Social Physique Anxiety among Young Adults <p>Across the world, social media usage has become a very common leisure activity; however, its excessive use may lead to its misuse or social media addiction. This abuse of social media in turn may affect one's self-efficacy; giving birth to several issues such as increased appearance-related consciousness and social physique anxiety. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to examine the direct and indirect relationship of social media addiction with appearance-related consciousness and social physique anxiety through self-efficacy as a mediator among young adults. A convenient sample of 200 young adults fulfilling the criteria of social media addiction was selected from different universities in Islamabad, Pakistan. To assess the study variables, Berger Social Media Addiction Scale (BSMAS)<strong>, </strong>Appearance-Related Social Media Consciousness (ASMC) scale, Social Physique Anxiety Scale (SPAS), and Generalized Self Efficacy Scale (GSE) were used. The study concluded significant relationships between the study variables. Social media addiction was significantly and positively found to be related to both appearance-related consciousness and social physique anxiety. Moreover, Self-efficacy was negatively related to appearance-related consciousness and social physique anxiety. In addition, mediation analysis found that self-efficacy is not a significant mediator between social media addiction, appearance-related consciousness, and social physique anxiety. The findings of this study highlighted how addictive use of social media can increase serious issues among today's youth. Awareness programs regarding social media use should be conducted to mitigate such concerns.</p> Fauzia Batool, Ansa Quratulain Copyright (c) 2023 Fauzia Batool, Ansa Quratulain Sun, 31 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Awareness of Seasonal Affective Disorder <p>N/A</p> Iqra Tariq Copyright (c) 2023 Iqra Tariq Sun, 31 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000