Journal of Professional & Applied Psychology https://iprpk.com/ojs/index.php/jpap <p>An official journal of Institute of Psychological Research (Registered) that follows the open access model of publication. The journal accepts original articles, qualitative research articles, review articles including systematic reviews and meta analysis, brief research reports, case study artciles, viewpoint, and letter to the editors related to all fields of psychology. The Journal of Professional &amp; Applied Psychology has been <strong>recognized by HEC in Y Category</strong> and is included in <a href="https://hjrs.hec.gov.pk/index.php?r=site%2Fresult&amp;id=1021760#journal_result">HJRS.</a> The <strong>Policy Document</strong> of the journal complies with the standards of scholarly publishing set by <a href="https://www.hec.gov.pk/english/services/faculty/journals/Pages/default.aspx">HEC</a>, <a href="https://doaj.org/apply/guide/">DOAJ</a>, and <a href="https://publicationethics.org/">COPE</a> and can be found <a href="https://iprpk.com/ojs/index.php/jpap/libraryFiles/downloadPublic/6">here.</a></p> en-US <p><span class="fontstyle0">Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0) License: This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial 4.0 International License (https://www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits non-Commercial use, reproduction<br />and distribution of the work without further permission provided the original work is attributed as specified on the Journal website at (https://iprpk.com/ojs/index.php/jpap) </span></p> <p> </p> jpap@iprpk.com (Prof Dr Ahmad Bilal) ceditor@iprpk.com (Prof Dr Ahmad Bilal) Thu, 21 Mar 2024 14:57:27 +0000 OJS 3.3.0.4 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Unveiling the Lived Experiences of Tomboys: A Qualitative Study https://iprpk.com/ojs/index.php/jpap/article/view/227 <p>The present study explores the lived experiences of tomboys. Phenomenology research design was used for this study. Six participants were recruited via snowball sampling. Face-to-face in-depth interviews were conducted to collect data. Thematic analysis was done to analyze the data. Four major themes emerged through analysis namely; social aspects, psychological aspects, personality factors, and gender characteristics. The foremost implication of this research is in social welfare by creating awareness for a gender minority like tomboys, and presenting them in natural light. It can be used for policy making by public and private institutions. It will be useful for both institutional and private counselors to understand lived experiences of tomboys and work with them accordingly. The findings of the research can be used by human rights organizations to create gender equality in Pakistan.</p> Saman Amin, Amber Baseer, Shagufta Shaheen Copyright (c) 2024 Saman Amin, Amber Baseer, Shagufta Shaheen https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://iprpk.com/ojs/index.php/jpap/article/view/227 Thu, 21 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Importance of Ethical Code of Conduct for Psychological Practice in Pakistan https://iprpk.com/ojs/index.php/jpap/article/view/275 <p>.</p> Rizwana Amin, Bushra Akram Copyright (c) 2024 Rizwana Amin, Bushra Akram https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://iprpk.com/ojs/index.php/jpap/article/view/275 Thu, 21 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Psychological Impact of Medical Gaslighting on Women: A Systematic Review https://iprpk.com/ojs/index.php/jpap/article/view/249 <p>This systematic review aimed to evaluate the experiences of medical gaslighting in women. Medical gaslighting is used to describe the dismissive, invalidating, and biased experiences of people with the healthcare system that result in frustration, doubt, and feelings of isolation. Women have significantly negative experiences with healthcare providers when seeking diagnosis and/or treatment, which defines how they signify their experiences as medical gaslighting. To conduct the review, Google Scholar, JSTOR, PubMed, ScienceDirect, Semantic Scholar, Psychology of Health, Jacobs Health Institute of Women, and Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis were explored with the keywords of medical gaslighting, women's health, and healthcare experiences of women. 10 articles were selected for the systematic review after data extraction based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Seven themes emerged from the selected articles: 1) denial and dismissal of symptoms 2) delayed diagnosis 3) negative experiences with healthcare professionals 4) gender bias in healthcare 5) the need for self-advocacy 6) stigmatization of mental health by healthcare professionals 7) anxiety and trauma. The experiences of women with the healthcare system are overwhelmingly negative and encompassed in medical gaslighting, leading to the worsening of health conditions. The healthcare system requires many reforms, starting with decreasing gender biases in hospitals, healthcare providers and research.</p> Kianaat Khan, Noor ul Saba Tariq, Saima Majeed Copyright (c) 2024 Kianaat Khan, Noor ul Saba Tariq, Saima Majeed https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://iprpk.com/ojs/index.php/jpap/article/view/249 Thu, 21 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Does Spiritual Intelligence Link with Happiness and Psychological Adjustment among University Students? https://iprpk.com/ojs/index.php/jpap/article/view/236 <p>Spiritual Intelligence (SI) is considered the most basic form of intelligence which enables an individual to deeply understand him and others and thus helps in achieving happiness and well-being in life (Subraniam &amp; Panchanatham, 2015). The objective of the present study was to examine the relationship between spiritual intelligence, happiness and psychological adjustment in university students. A total of 350 students (Men = 175; Women = 175) were recruited from the universities of Lahore, Pakistan. The age of participants ranges between 18-30 years (<em>M</em> = 21.76; <em>SD</em> = 2.07). Spiritual Intelligence Self-Report Inventory (SISRI-24), Subjective Happiness Scale (SHS), and Psychological Adjustment Scale were used to assess spiritual intelligence, happiness, and psychological adjustment, respectively. Results revealed that spiritual intelligence significantly relates to and predicts happiness and psychological adjustment. As compared to men, psychological adjustment and spiritual intelligence were found to be higher in women. To conclude, students having higher spiritual intelligence are more likely to be happier and show better psychological adjustment, when compared to those who showed lower spiritual intelligence. In the future, spiritual intelligence-fostering programs such as community activities, orientation programs, spiritual seminars, counseling, and classroom activities could be catered for students.</p> Tehreem Arshad Copyright (c) 2024 Tehreem Arshad https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://iprpk.com/ojs/index.php/jpap/article/view/236 Thu, 21 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Exploration of Hikikomori Syndrome in Young Adults in Lahore: A Preliminary Study https://iprpk.com/ojs/index.php/jpap/article/view/244 <p>Hikikomori syndrome is a relatively new psychological problem related with serious social outcomes which has attracted lots of attention from mental health professionals particularly after COVID-19 pandemic. The present article is based on a preliminary study that explored the symptoms of hikikomori syndrome in young adults in Lahore extracted from the preliminary phase of an ongoing research project and employed cross sectional research design. Sample was selected from Lahore from October 2022 to January 2023 and comprised of 206 young adults. The sample included both men and women with a mean age of 22 (<em>SD</em>= 6.65) years. Data was collected through demographic form, hikikomori questionnaire and perceived social support scale. Hikikomori symptoms showed significant associations with many demographic variables like age, number of siblings, history of psychological illness. Gender, family system and social support revealed significant differences in hikikomori symptoms. Despite small sample size, present study revealed an interesting set of findings related to hikikomori phenomena.</p> Abia Nazim Copyright (c) 2024 Abia Nazim https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://iprpk.com/ojs/index.php/jpap/article/view/244 Thu, 21 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Enhancing Community Resilience: An Integrated Home-based Psychological Intervention for Individuals Living with Physical Disabilities https://iprpk.com/ojs/index.php/jpap/article/view/256 <p>Individuals living with physical disabilities more likely develop psychological problems and less able to seek appropriate care for their issues as compared with the individuals living without disability. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of an integrated home-based psychological intervention in managing psychological problems among individuals living with disabilities. For the purpose, a total of 60 participants were enrolled from the Community-Based Rehabilitation (CBR) program at Aid to Leprosy Patients (ALP) in Rawalpindi Pakistan between November 2021 and July 2022. These participants received comprehensive rehabilitation services alongside a structured psychological intervention. The duration of the study was 5 months including the follow up sessions. Significant improvements observed from pre-treatment to post-treatment. The main effect for psychosocial disabilities was (<em>F</em> = 116.93, <em>p</em>&lt;.001), emotional problems (<em>F</em> = 116.93, <em>p</em>&lt;.001), Depression (<em>F </em>= 117.30, <em>p</em>&lt;.001), Anxiety (<em>F</em> = 150.02, <em>p</em>&lt;.001) and Stress (<em>F</em> = 93.36, <em>p</em>&lt;.001). The integrated home-based psychological intervention served as an effective rehabilitation approach for individuals with physical disabilities, particularly those previously unable to reintegrate into community life.</p> Basharat Hussain, Muhammad Tahir Khalily Copyright (c) 2024 Basharat Hussain, Muhammad Tahir Khalily https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://iprpk.com/ojs/index.php/jpap/article/view/256 Thu, 21 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Psychosocial and Personality Factors in Economic Decision Making https://iprpk.com/ojs/index.php/jpap/article/view/247 <p>Economic decision-making largely affects the lives of the people. The objective of this study was to analyze the relationship among age, gender, and personality with psychosocial factors in economic decision-making. The study sample comprised of 150 businesspersons (men = 90, women= 60). Psychosocial Factor in Economic Decision-Making Scale (Ajmal et al., 2013a, 2013b<strong>)</strong> was used to assess the psychosocial factors that affect economic decision making. The personality was evaluated using Eysenik Personality Questionnaire (Urdu version translated by Amjad &amp; Kausar, 2001). Age was found to have a significant negative relationship with the emotional factor in economic decision-making. However, the emotional and social factors had no relationship with either of the personality dimension while the cognitive factor was found to have a significant negative relationship with neuroticism and psychoticism. Moreover, psychoticism and age negatively predicted the cognitive factor and experience in the business positively predicted the cognitive factor in economic decision-making. The findings hold implications for psychologists, economists, business personnel, and policymakers. </p> Ali Ajmal, Rukhsana Kousar , Iram Fatima Copyright (c) 2024 Ali Ajmal, Rukhsana Kousar , Iram Fatima https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://iprpk.com/ojs/index.php/jpap/article/view/247 Thu, 21 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Translation and Standardization of the Social Anxiety Questionnaire (SAQ) https://iprpk.com/ojs/index.php/jpap/article/view/263 <p>Social anxiety refers to an intense fear of evaluation from others in social situations, which in severe cases results in Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) or Social Phobia. The prevalence rate of Social Anxiety is rapidly increasing. So, there is a significant need to study this area and to have valid instruments that can evaluate Social Anxiety and related problems. In Pakistan, clinicians may at times struggle to assess several clinical phenomena as almost all measures are in English language, which a large majority does not understand. Therefore, the present study was designed to translate and standardize the Social Anxiety Questionnaire (SAQ) by Caballo et al. (2010) into Urdu Language. The research was done in two phases. The first phase included translation of the scale to Urdu language through the standard procedure of Back translation. The second phase included the standardization of the scale. Exploratory Factor Analysis was done to assess construct validity. Internal consistency was assessed through Cronbach’s Alpha (0.96). The results showed strong reliability and validity of SAQ-Urdu.</p> Mishal Javaid, Abia Nazim Copyright (c) 2024 Mishal Javaid, Abia Nazim https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://iprpk.com/ojs/index.php/jpap/article/view/263 Thu, 21 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Personal Growth and Psychological Well-Being of Dementia Caregivers https://iprpk.com/ojs/index.php/jpap/article/view/240 <p>Dementia is a neurological condition that impacts mental processes such as reasoning or the ability to think. Caregiving for such individuals is a strenuous process that leads to both positive and negative changes in the caregiver’s life. Thus, the purpose of this research was to investigate the correlation between the personal growth and psychological well-being of caregivers. With the aid of pre-existing literature, two hypotheses were formed: (i) there is a positive correlation between personal growth and psychological well-being of a dementia caregiver, (ii) having significant social support positively correlates with improved personal growth and psychological well-being of the caregiver. Using convenient sampling, a sample of 102 participants from Pakistan above the age of 18 was selected, and two scales were administered to the participants. The first scale was ‘the role of caregivers' skills in caregivers' syndrome and caregivers' burden’, which assessed the extent of changes in psychological well-being and personal growth that the severity of dementia within patients had on the patient’s caregiver. The second was the ‘Caregiver Appraisal Scale’ which measured the caregiver’s burden, satisfaction, mastery, demands and the impact experienced by them. No deception was involved, and confidentiality of participants was maintained. Their participation was completely voluntary and their rights as research participants were protected at all times. Results were analyzed using the correlation coefficient. No significant correlation was found for either of the hypotheses. This research aimed to create awareness regarding the significance of being a caregiver and what it entails.</p> Aisha Ateeq, Zainab Attique , Noor ul Huda Copyright (c) 2024 Aisha Ateeq, Zainab Attique , Noor ul Huda https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://iprpk.com/ojs/index.php/jpap/article/view/240 Thu, 21 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Death Anxiety and Depression among Cancer Patients: Role of Perceived Social Support https://iprpk.com/ojs/index.php/jpap/article/view/230 <p>The primary objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between death anxiety and depression in individuals coping with cancer, focusing specifically on the role of perceived social support as a protective factor. The sample consisted of 200 cancer patients (95 males, 105 females) from hospitals in Rawalpindi and Islamabad, spanning different age groups. Data were categorized by cancer stage and treatment types. Using a cross-sectional design and correlational approach, the study found excellent reliabilities for Perceived Social Support (? = .90) and good reliabilities for Depression and Death Anxiety (? = .83 and .85, respectively). Gender-based differences were not significant for depression (<em>t</em> = -.51, <em>p</em> &gt; .05) or perceived social support (<em>t</em> = -.23, <em>p</em> &gt; .05). Perceived social support was highest initially and declined as cancer progressed. Significant variance in social support was observed across cancer stages (<em>p </em>&lt; .05), with post hoc tests showing that 1st stage patients had significantly higher support than 2nd, 3rd, and 4th stage patients (MD = 7.27, <em>p</em> = 0.09). The study also showed gender differences in death anxiety, suggesting that women exhibited higher levels of death anxiety compared to men. Moreover, perceived social support was high at the 1st stage and significantly declined as the level progressed (3rd stage). The findings can be helpful for health professionals, psychologists and caregivers. </p> Kiran Shahzadi, Samia Mazhar Copyright (c) 2024 Kiran Shahzadi, Samia Mazhar https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://iprpk.com/ojs/index.php/jpap/article/view/230 Thu, 21 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Pedagogical Content Knowledge and Job Motivation in School Teachers: The Mediating Role of Teaching Efficacy https://iprpk.com/ojs/index.php/jpap/article/view/259 <p>The present study explored the relational dynamics of pedagogical content knowledge, teaching efficacy, and job motivation in school teachers. Directed by the published literature, it was postulated that a) there would be a positive relationship among teaching efficacy, pedagogical content knowledge and job motivation, b) teaching efficacy and pedagogical content knowledge would predict job motivation and, c) teaching efficacy would mediate between pedagogical content knowledge and job motivation. After observing all stipulated ethical considerations, a purposive sample of 220 school teachers (<em>n</em> = 117 men, <em>n</em> = 103 women) with an age range of 20-50 years <em>(M</em>=33.54<em>, SD</em>=4.54<em>)</em> was recruited for this cross-sectional correlational research. Tools used were demographic information sheet, teacher sense of efficacy scale (short form), STEM pedagogical content knowledge scale and motivation at work scale. Findings showed that there was a significant negative relationship between teaching efficacy and pedagogical content knowledge, and between job motivation and pedagogical content knowledge in teachers. Moreover, pedagogical content knowledge was a significant predictor of job motivation and teaching efficacy mediated the relationship between pedagogical content knowledge and job motivation. Other than facilitating occupational and educational psychologists in their work with teachers, current findings can also be incorporated into policymaking of the education sector. </p> Faiz Younas, Rabia Javed, Vicar Solomon Copyright (c) 2024 Faiz Younas, Rabia Javed, Vicar Solomon https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://iprpk.com/ojs/index.php/jpap/article/view/259 Thu, 21 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000