Development of Forman Malingering Scale


  • Shaza Azam MS Scholar, Department of Psychology, Forman Christian College (A Chartered University), Lahore, Pakistan.
  • Abia Nazim Associate Professor, Department of Psychology, Forman Christian College (A Chartered University), Lahore, Pakistan.



Forensic Psychology, Malingering, Psychometrics, Scale Development


The aim of the present study was to develop a valid and reliable scale to assess malingering. The scale was developed using one of the contemporary models of scale construction. The study was completed in three phases. Item generation was phase I, which was completed in two steps; conducting interview of clinical psychologists having experience with both clinical and forensic clients, and step two was extracting items from existing scales after a thorough review. Initially item pool was reviewed by researcher for initial cleansing. Content validity was established in the second phase of the study through content validity ratio (CVR). In phase III of the study, the scale was administered on clinical and forensic sample using purposive sampling technique. The scale along with demographic questionnaire was administered on clinical (N=123) and forensic (N=19) sample. The mean age of the 142 participants was 32.7 (10.9) years. The construct validity of the scale was established through exploratory factor analysis (EFA) which resulted in 37 items distributed in three factors. Factor one was named as Perceptual Inconsistency and reliability established through Cronbach’s alpha was 0.93. Factor 2 was named as Imagined Inconsistency and reliability calculated to be 0.95. Factor 3 was named Cognitive Inconsistency. The internal consistency of the scale showed the reliability 0.97.

Author Biography

Abia Nazim, Associate Professor, Department of Psychology, Forman Christian College (A Chartered University), Lahore, Pakistan.



American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.

Duffy, S. (2011). Malingering psychological symptoms: An empirical review. Unpublished master’s thesis). Illinois State University, Normal, IL. Available: http://psychologyillinoisstate. edu/cc/Comps/Duffy.

Field, A. (2018). Discovering Statistics using IBM SPSS Statistics. Sage.

Golanics, J. (2018). Malingering Undetected Successfully: Does Extrinsic Motivation and Coaching Have a Significant Impact? UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones. 3361.

Kyriazos, T. A., & Stalikas, A. (2018). Applied psychometrics: the steps of scale development and standardization process. Psychology, 9(11), 2531.

Miller, H. A. (2001). Miller-Forensic Assessment of Symptoms Test (M-FAST): Professional manual. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.

Rogers, R. (Ed.). (2008). Clinical assessment of malingering and deception (4th ed.). Guilford Press.

Rogers, R., & Bender, S. D. (2020). Clinical Assessment of Malingering and Deception, Fourth edition. Guilford Publications.

Rogers, R., Gillis, J. R., Dickens, S. E., & Bagby, R. M. (1991). Standardized assessment of malingering: Validation of the Structured Interview of Reported Symptoms. Psychological Assessment: A Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 3(1), 89–96.

Ruscio, J. (2015). Rational/Theoretical approach to test construction. The Encyclopedia of Clinical Psychology, 1–5.

Schretlen, D. J. (1986). Malingering: The Use of a Psychological Test Battery to Detect Two Kinds of Simulation (Faking, Bender-Gestalt, Dissimulation, MMPI). [University of Arizona].

Simms, L. J. (2008). Classical and modern methods of psychological scale construction. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 2(1), 414-433.




How to Cite

Azam, S., & Nazim, A. (2024). Development of Forman Malingering Scale. Journal of Professional & Applied Psychology, 5(2), 315–324.