Self-Objectification, Internalized Transphobia and Psychological Distress in Male-to-Female Transgenders


  • Shaza Azam Alumnus, Centre for Clinical Psychology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan.
  • Sumaira Ayub Lecturer, Department of Applied Psychology, School of Professional Psychology, University of Management & Technology, Lahore, Pakistan.



Anxiety, Depression, Internalized Transphobia, Psychological Distress, Self-Objectification, Stress, Transgender People


The present study was conducted to investigate the relationship between self-objectification, internalized transphobia, and psychological distress in male-to-female (MtF) transgenders. It was hypothesized that: 1) there would be a positive relationship between self-objectification, internalized transphobia, and psychological distress in male-to-female (MtF) transgenders; and 2) Self-objectification and internalized transphobia would predict the psychological distress in MtF transgenders. A correlational research design was used. A sample comprising of 136 MtF transgenders with an age range of 19-55 years (M = 34.46, SD = 9.09) were approached by employing purposive sampling technique. Data were collected from Fountain House and the Khawaja Sira Society of Lahore. A self-constructed demographic information sheet, Urdu versions of Self-objectification Questionnaire, Transgender Identity Scale, and the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21) were used for assessment. The results exhibited a positive relationship between self-objectification, internalized transphobia, and psychological distress in MtF transgenders. Furthermore, the results also displayed that self-objectification and pride and shame related internalized transphobia positively predicted the psychological distress in MtF transgenders. This study will contribute towards the development of program that will ensure lesser distress and improved quality life for the transgender communities.


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How to Cite

Azam, S. ., & Ayub, S. (2023). Self-Objectification, Internalized Transphobia and Psychological Distress in Male-to-Female Transgenders. Journal of Professional & Applied Psychology, 4(2), 167–180.