Bedtime Procrastination, Sleep Disturbance, Fatigue and Mental Health in Female University Students: Mediation Analysis


  • Nimra Yasin MS Scholar, Riphah Institute of Clinical & Professional Psychology, Riphah International University, Lahore, Pakistan.
  • Rehana Mushtaq Assistant Professor, Department of Clinical Psychology, School of Professional Psychology, University of Management & Technology, Lahore, Pakistan.
  • Anum Karamat Lecturer, Department of Clinical Psychology, School of Professional Psychology, University of Management & Technology, Lahore, Pakistan.



Bedtime Procrastination, Fatigue, Mental Health Problems, Sleep Disturbance


This research aimed to explore the association between bedtime procrastination, sleep disturbance, fatigue, and mental health problems among female university students. The researchers employed a correlational methodology.  A sample consisting of 182 female university students 59% (108 undergraduate) and 41% (74 postgraduate students) with age ranging from 18 to 26 years old (M=21.98, SD=2.17) from public and private universities through convenient sampling were asked to complete demographic Performa, Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Bed Time Procrastination Scale (BTPS), and Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21). Correlation analysis depicted a significant positive association among bedtime procrastination, sleep disturbance, fatigue, and mental health problems. Regression analysis revealed that bedtime procrastination, sleep disturbance, and fatigue were significant predictors of mental health problems.  The findings of the Mediation analysis indicated that sleep disturbance and fatigue fully mediate the relationship between bedtime procrastination and mental health problems (? = .07, SE = .13, p < .227, R2 = .70). These results can help university students who struggle with sleep deprivation, chronic exhaustion, and mental health problems. Students' lives would be better if they were more aware of the links between staying up too late, sleep disruption, and mental health issues.


Alshammari, T. K., Rogowska, A. M., Basharahil, R. F., Alomar, S. F., Alseraye, S. S., Al-Juffali, L. A., Alrasheed, N. M. & Alshammari, M. A. (2023). Examining bedtime procrastination, study engagement, and study holism in undergraduate students, and their association with insomnia. Frontiers in Psychology, 13.

Buysse, D. J., Reynolds, C. F., Monk, T. H., Berman, S. R. & Kupfer, D. J. (1989). The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index: a new instrument for psychiatric practice and research. Psychiatry Research, 28(2), 193-213.

Cui, G., Yin, Y. Li, S., Chen, L., Liu, X., Tang, K., & Li, Y. (2021). Longitudinal relationships among problematic mobile phone use, bedtime procrastination, sleep quality and depressive symptoms in Chinese college students: a cross-lagged panel analysis, BMC Psychiatry, 21(1).

Feng, B., & Sun, W. (2023). Bedtime procrastination and fatigue in Chinese college students: the mediating role of Mobile phone addiction. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 21(5), 3362-3375.

Hayes, A. F., & Rockwood, N. J. (2020). Conditional process analysis: Concepts, computation, and advances in the modeling of the contingencies of mechanisms. American Behavioral Scientist, 64 (1), 19-54.

Henry, J. D., & Crawford, J. R. (2005). The short-form version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21): Construct validity and normative data in a large non-clinical sample. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 44(2), 227–239.

Hu, W., Ye, Z., & Zhang, Z. (2022). Off-time work-related smartphone use and bedtime procrastination of public employees: A cross-cultural study. Frontiers in Psychology, 13, 850802.

Hwang, I. W., Choe, J. P., Park, J. H., & Lee, J. M. (2022). Association between Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior, Satisfaction with Sleep Fatigue Recovery and Smartphone Dependency among Korean Adolescents: An Age-and Gender-Matched Study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 19(23), 16034.

Karaman, M. A., Lerma, E., Vela, J. C., & Watson, J. C. (2019). Predictors of academic stress among college students. Journal of College Counseling, 22(1), 41-55.

Kim, H. N., Cho, J., Chang, Y., Ryu, S., Shin, H., & Kim, H. L. (2015). Association between personality traits and sleep quality in young Korean women. PloS One, 10(6), e0129599.

Kroese, F. M., De Ridder, D. T., Evers, C., & Adriaanse, M. A. (2014). Bedtime procrastination: introducing a new area of procrastination, Frontiers in Psychology, 5, 611.

Kroese, F. M., Nauts, S., Kamphorst, B. A., Anderson, J. H., & de Ridder, D. T. (2016). Bedtime procrastination: a behavioral perspective on sleep insufficiency. In Procrastination, health, and well-being (pp. 93-119). Academic Press.

Krupp, L. B., LaRocca, N. G., Muir-Nash, J., & Steinberg, A. D. (1989). The fatigue severity scale: application to patients with multiple sclerosis and systemic lupus erythematosus. Archives of Neurology, 46(10), 1121–1123.

Li X., Buxton O. M., Kim Y., Haneuse S., Kawachi I. (2020). Do procrastinators get worse sleep? Cross-sectional study of us adolescents and young adults. SSM Population Health 10, 100518.

Lovibond, P. F. & Lovibond, S. H. (1995). The structure of negative emotional states: comparison of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) with the Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventory. Behavior Research and Therapy, 33(3), 335-43.

Nauts, S., Kamphorst, B. A., Stut, W., De Ridder, D. T., & Anderson, J. H. (2019). The explanations people give for going to bed late: a qualitative study of the varieties of bedtime procrastination. Behavioral Sleep Medicine, 17(6), 753-762.

Pakistan Bureau of Statistics, (2016). Pakistan Education Statistics: Number of Students.

Rosiek, A., Rosiek-Kryszewska, A., Leksowski, K., & Leksowski, ?. (2019). Insufficient sleep syndrome among higher education students: Prevalence and its association with daytime sleepiness, depressive symptoms, and quality of life. Sleep and Breathing, 13 (2), 212.

Shukla, A. & Andrade, C. (2023). Prevalence of bedtime procrastination in university students and reexamination of the Bedtime Procrastination Scale. Primary Care Companion CNS Disorders, 25(1).

Sirois, F.M. & Pychyl, T.A. (2016). Procrastination, Health, and Well-Being. 1st ed. Academic Press; Cambridge, MA, USA

Steel, P. (2007). The nature of procrastination: a meta-analytic and theoretical review of quintessential self-regulatory failure. Psychological Bulletin, 133(1), 65-94.

Suni, E. & Dimitriu, A. (2021). Sleep Deprivation: Causes, Symptoms, & Treatment. Sleep Foundation.

Taylor, D. J., Bramoweth, A. D., Grieser, E. A., Tatum, J. I., & Roane, B. M. (2013). Epidemiology of insomnia in college students: relationship with mental health, quality of life, and substance use difficulties. Behavior Therapy, 44(3), 339-48.

Tice, D., & Baumeister, R. (1997). Longitudinal study of procrastination, performance, stress and health: the costs and benefits of dawdling. Psychological Science, 8, 454–458.

Tyagi, J. (2022). Revenge Bedtime Procrastination during the Pandemic. International Journal of Indian Psychology, 10(1).

Wuthrich, V. M., Jagiello, T., & Azzi, V. (2020). Academic stress in the final years of school: A systematic literature review. Child Psychiatry & Human Development, 51, 986-1015.




How to Cite

Yasin, N. ., Mushtaq, R. ., & Karamat, A. (2024). Bedtime Procrastination, Sleep Disturbance, Fatigue and Mental Health in Female University Students: Mediation Analysis. Journal of Professional & Applied Psychology, 5(2), 215–223.