A Holistic Perspective towards Perils of and Pathways to Addiction Recovery in Pakistan: Exploring Indigenous Factors


  • Muhammad Yasir Masood Afaq PhD Scholar, Department of Psychology, National University of Modern Languages, Islamabad, Pakistan. https://orcid.org/0009-0005-6632-3309
  • Tasnim Rehna Assistant Professor, Department of Psychology, National University of Modern Languages, Islamabad, Pakistan. https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7745-6554
  • Arif Nadeem Assisstant Professor, Department of Applied Psychology, Government College University, Faisalabad, Pakistan. https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0004-0224




Addiction Recovery, Addiction Relapse, Addiction Treatment, Relapse Prevention


A multi-angled approach and formation of a holistic body of insights about drug addiction relapse and recovery is the key objective of this qualitative study. Based on a Constructivist Grounded Theory methodology, a total 40 semi-structured interviews were conducted from 10 recovering persons, 10 relapsed person and 10 chief caregivers of each set of recovering and relapsed persons. Out 20 recovering and relapsed persons, 7 were within age of 18-25, 10 were within 26-35 years of age and 3 respondents were over 35 years of age. Their respective 20 chief caregivers included their parents, siblings, spouses and case managers.  Furthermore, 2 Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) were conducted having 4 participants i.e., Psychiatrists, Psychologists, Psychotherapists and Case Managers hailing from Drug Rehab Centers in each group. The digitally recorded interviews were transcribed/translated and further analyzed in NVIVO – Windows. Following the processes of Open, Axial and Selective Coding, five core categories of Familial, Personal, Socio-cultural, Psycho-emotive and Treatment Factors emerged to form the theoretical framework of the substantive grounded theory titled as Perils of and Pathways to Addiction Recovery.  The theory connects various dimensions of the causal factors and recovery-assuring remedial measures. This framework serves as an indigenous work for developing policy, interventions and treatment. This study reveals contributing factors for the efficacy of different treatment approaches and practices in Pakistan. This five factor theoretical model has high-resolution data driven insights collected from all possible stakeholders of the eco system of falling prey to addiction and recovering from it.


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How to Cite

Afaq, M. Y. M. ., Rehna , T. ., & Nadeem , A. . (2023). A Holistic Perspective towards Perils of and Pathways to Addiction Recovery in Pakistan: Exploring Indigenous Factors. Journal of Professional & Applied Psychology, 4(4), 594–609. https://doi.org/10.52053/jpap.v4i4.245