Lived Experiences and Daily Life Fatigue among Non-Medical Prescribed Opioid Users in Pakistan: A Thematic Analysis


  • Rizwan Ullah MS Scholar, Department of Psychology, International Islamic University, Islamabad, Pakistan.
  • Sabir Zaman Lecturer, Department of Psychology, International Islamic University, Islamabad, Pakistan.
  • Muhammad Muslim Khan Associate Professor, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Bacha Khan Medical College, Mardan Medical Complex Mardan, Pakistan.



Daily Life Fatigues, Lived Experiences, Opioids


The misuse of opioids for non-medical purposes is a persistent public health concern worldwide, particularly in developing countries like Pakistan, where a considerable number of individuals experiences the deleterious physiological and psychological consequences stemming from this behavior. The primary aim of the study was to assess the personal experiences and fatigue levels of individuals engaging in non-medical opioid use. The data were collected from addiction, and rehabilitation centers and the sample consisted of 12 individuals both males and females, who aged from 18 to 60 years (M=27.64, SD=9.10).  Additionally, individuals who were actively involved in non-medical opioid usage were included in the study.  These individuals were assessed through the utilization of a semi-structured interview approach, providing a balanced framework that allowed for both predetermined questions and open-ended inquiries to gather comprehensive information. The finding reveals that various factors, including physical and mental health issues, family dynamics, and peer influence, contribute to opioid consumption. The study identifies a wide range of symptoms, from psychological and physical effects to dependency and isolation. Moreover, rehabilitation efforts may be affected by factors such as individual motivation and familial support, while the lack of awareness about addiction treatability serves as an inhibitory factor. Although the use of opioids can initially cause feelings of pleasure, relaxation, and heightened energy akin to manic symptoms, it frequently leads to detrimental psychological outcomes. These adverse effects include impulsive actions, guilt, and disruption in daily routines.


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How to Cite

Ullah, R., Zaman , S. ., & Khan, M. M. . (2023). Lived Experiences and Daily Life Fatigue among Non-Medical Prescribed Opioid Users in Pakistan: A Thematic Analysis. Journal of Professional & Applied Psychology, 4(3), 429–439.