Emotional Intelligence and Academic Self-Efficacy in Employed and Unemployed Students





Academic Self-efficacy, Emotional Intelligence, Student Employment, Work


Employment is one of the core behaviors regulating the modern societal structure. Research has shown that with the passage of years, an increasing number of students are getting employed and that there are numerous benefits and consequences of this phenomenon. Keeping this development in mind, it is imperative to study how jobs are affecting the students of our society. A sample of 250 undergraduate students was used, including 125 employed students and 125 unemployed students, ranging from the ages of 18 to 30 (M=21.26, SD=1.49). Data was collected using purposive sampling. The research was conducted using the Assessing Emotions Scale by Schutte et al. (1998) and Academic Self-efficacy scale (Ghafoor & Ashraf, 2007). An independent samples t-test was conducted to compare the mean differences in emotional intelligence of employed and unemployed students. Significant differences were observed between employed (M=113.13, SD=24.37) and unemployed students (M=118.05, SD=19.47; p=.02). Students who were unemployed were found to have higher emotional intelligence than employed students. An independent samples t-test was conducted to compare the academic self-efficacy scores for employed and unemployed students. There was no significant difference observed in scores for employed students (M=113.45, SD = 13.43) and unemployed students (M=116.40, SD=11.66; p=.15). This study has both practical and theoretical implications for future researchers who wish to examine the role of employment in mediating other psychological constructs among university students.



Adeyemo, D.A. & Adeleye, A.T. (2008). Emotional intelligence, religiosity and self-efficacy as predictors of psychological well-being among secondary school adolescents in Ogbomoso, Nigeria. Europe’s Journal of Psychology, 4(1), https://doi.org/10.5964/ejop.v4i1.423

Bandalos, D. L., Yates, K., & Thorndike-Christ, T. (1995). Effects of math self-concept, perceived self-efficacy, and attributions for failure and success on test anxiety. Journal of Educational Psychology, 87(4), 611-623. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.87.4.611

Bandura, A. (1992). Exercise of personal agency through the self-efficacy mechanism. In R. Schwarzer (Ed.), Self-efficacy: Thought control of action (pp. 3–38). Philadelphia: Taylor & Francis.

Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: W. H. Freeman.

Bandura, A., Barbaranelli, C., Caprara, G. V., & Pastorelli, C. (1996). Multifaceted impact of self-efficacy beliefs on academic functioning. Child Development, 67, 1206–1222.

Bong, M., & Skaalvik, E. M. (2003). Academic self-concept and self-efficacy: How different are they really? Educational Psychology Review, 15, 1-40.

Curtis, S., & Shani, N. (2002). The effect of taking paid employment during term-time on students' academic studies. Journal of Further and Higher Education, 26(2), 129-138.

Edwards, J. R., & Rothbard, N. P. (2000). Mechanisms linking work and family: Clarifying the relationship between work and family constructs. Academy of Management Review, 25(1), 178-199.

Elias, S. M., & Loomis, R. J. (2000). Using an academic self-efficacy scale to address university major persistence. Journal of College Student Development, 41, 450–454.

Elias, S. M., & MacDonald, S. (2007). Using past performance, proxy efficacy, and academic self-efficacy to predict college performance. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 37, 2518e2531. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1559-1816.2007.00268.x

Ghafoor, A.K., & Ashraf, M. (2007). Academic Self-Efficacy Scale. https://doi.org/10.13140/RG.2.1.3930.2640

Hauschildt, K., Gwosc, C., Netz, N., & Mishra, S. (2015). Social and economic conditions of student life in Europe. Synopsis of Indicators. Eurostudent V, 2012-2015. Bielefeld: W. Bertelsmann Verlag.

Humphrey, R. (2006). Pulling structured inequality into higher education: The impact of parttime working on English university students. Higher Education Quarterly, 60(3), 270–86.

Julve, I. S. (2013). University Students: Profiles and Modalities of Linking with Study in Spanish Universities. [Doctoral Dissertation]. University of Valencia. https://roderic.uv.es/items/d68b4e14-f64d-4999-b3cb-29937a8c1608

Kulm, T. L., & Cramer, S. (2006). The relationship of student employment to student role, family relationships, social interactions and persistence. College Student Journal, 40, 927.

MacCann, C., Jiang, Y., Brown, L. E., Double, K. S., Bucich, M., & Minbashian, A. (2020). Emotional intelligence predicts academic performance: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 146(2), 150.

Malik, S. Z., & Shahid, S. (2016). Effect of Emotional Intelligence on Academic Performance among Business Students in Pakistan. Bulletin of Education and Research, 38(1), 197-208.

Mayer, J. D., & Geher, G. (1996). Emotional intelligence and the identification of emotion. Intelligence, 22(2), 89-113.

Mayer, J. D., Roberts, R. D., &Barsade, S. G. (2008). Human abilities: Emotional intelligence. Annual Review of Psychology, 59, 507-536.

Mayer, J. D., & Salovey P. (1997). What is emotional intelligence? In Salovey P., Sluyter D. (Eds.), Emotional development and emotional intelligence: Implications for educators (pp. 3–31). New York, NY: Basic Books.

McIntosh, C. (2013). Employment. In Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary 4th Edition. https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/employment

Neill, C. (2015). Rising student employment: The role of tuition fees. Education Economics, 23(1), 101-121.

Pajares, F., & Miller, M. D. (1994). Role of self-efficacy and self-concept beliefs in mathematical problem solving: A path analysis. Journal of Educational Psychology, 86(2), 193.

Pekrun, R., Elliot, A. J., & Maier, M. A. (2009). Achievement goals and achievement emotions: Testing a model of their joint relations with academic performance. Journal of Educational Psychology, 101(1), 115.

Pekrun, R., Goetz, T., Daniels, L. M., Stupnisky, R. H., & Perry, R. P. (2010). Boredom in achievement settings: Exploring control–value antecedents and performance outcomes of a neglected emotion. Journal of Educational Psychology, 102(3), 531.

Richardson, M., Abraham, C., & Bond, R. (2012). Psychological correlates of university students' academic performance: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 138(2), 353.

Robotham, D. (2012). Student part-time employment: characteristics and consequences. Education + Training, 54(1), 66-75.

Rode, J. C., Mooney, C. H., Arthaud?Day, M. L., Near, J. P., Baldwin, T. T., Rubin, R. S., &Bommer, W. H. (2007). Emotional intelligence and individual performance: Evidence of direct and moderated effects. Journal of Organizational Behavior: The International Journal of Industrial, Occupational and Organizational Psychology and Behavior, 28(4), 399-421.

Salovey, P., & Mayer, J. D. (1990). Emotional intelligence. Imagination, Cognition and Personality, 9(3), 185-211.

Schutte, N.S., Marlouf, J.M., Hall, L.E., Haggerty, D.J., Cooper, J.T., Golden, C.J., & Dorheim, L. (1998). Development and validation of a measure of emotional intelligence. Personality and Individual Differences, 25, 167–177.

Skaalvik, E. M., & Rankin, R. J. (1996, April). Self-concept and self-efficacy: Conceptual analysis. In annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, New York.

Staff, J., & Mortimer, J. T. (2007). Education and work strategies from adolescence to early adulthood: Consequences for educational attainment. Social Forces, 85, 1169–1194.

Snyder, T.D., & Dillow, S.A. (2010). Digest of Education Statistics 2009 (NCES 2010-013). National Center for Education Statistics, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education. Washington, DC.

Van Rooy, D. L., & Viswesvaran, C. (2004). Emotional intelligence: A meta-analytic investigation of predictive validity and nomological net. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 65(1), 71-95.

Weinzimmer, L. G., Baumann, H. M., Gullifor, D. P., &Koubova, V. (2017). Emotional intelligence and job performance: The mediating role of work-family balance. The Journal of Social Psychology, 157(3), 322-337.

Wood, R. E., & Bandura, A. (1989). Social cognitive theory of organizational management. Academy of Management Review, 14, 361–384.




How to Cite

Syed , S. B., & Shahid, E. (2024). Emotional Intelligence and Academic Self-Efficacy in Employed and Unemployed Students. Journal of Professional & Applied Psychology, 5(2), 234–243. https://doi.org/10.52053/jpap.v5i2.273