Spiritual Health in Association with the Emotional Intelligence among Teachers
Keywords:Emotional Intelligence, Spiritual Health, Teachers
Education system has been changing throughout the world. There is need to have a focus on the ways or variables that have an impact on teachers or educational institutes. Spiritual health has been previously studied with respect to health or nursing domains. However, concept of spiritual health has not been explained much with respect to educational institutes. The present study investigated the relationship between the spiritual health and emotional intelligence among teachers. 250 participants (125 males and 125 females) were approached by multistage sampling. Cross sectional research design was employed. The data were collected using two questionnaires: Brief Emotional Intelligence Scale (BEIS-10) and Spiritual Health Assessment Scale (SHAS). The data was analyzed through Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. Results revealed that spiritual health has significant relationship with emotional intelligence. Analysis of gender differences revealed that females are more spiritually healthy as compared to males while emotional intelligence was not significantly different across genders. The study concluded that high spiritual health has been related to the emotional intelligence of teachers which is essential to improve the students’ academic progress. Teachers are not only delivering knowledge, rather they also learn on regular basis, having good spiritual health helps them to manage emotions appropriately which in turn enhances their learning.
Alorani, O. I., & Alradaydeh, M. T. F. (2018). Spiritual well-being, perceived social support, and life satisfaction among university students. International Journal of Adolescence and Youth, 23(3), 291-298. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/02673843.2017.1352522
Anandarajah, G., & Hight, E. (2001). Spirituality and medical practice: using the HOPE questions as a practical tool for spiritual assessment. American Family Physician, 63(1), 81-89.
Asadzandi, M., Abolghasemi, H., Javadi, M., & Sarhangi, F. (2020). A Comparative assessment of the spiritual health behaviors of the Iranian Muslim in the COVID-19 pandemic with religious evidence. Journal of Military Medicine, 22(8), 864-872.
Aslam, A., Ahmer, Z., & Ahmed, A. (2020). Spiritual Health Among Pakistani Religious and Non-Religious Professional: A Comparative Cross-Sectional Study Highlighting the Role of Regional Beliefs and Practices. Advances in Mind-Body Medicine, 34(3), 18-24.
Barney, R. J., & Buckingham, S. L. (2012). HIV/AIDS and spirituality in a South African township: A qualitative study. Journal of Religion & Spirituality in Social Work: Social Thought, 31(1-2), 51–66. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/15426432.2012.647883
Bensley, R. J. (1991). Defining spiritual health: A review of the literature. Journal of Health Education, 22(5), 287–290. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/10556699.1991.10614636
Brackett, M. A., Mayer, J. D., & Warner, R. M. (2004). Emotional intelligence and its relation to everyday behavior. Personality and Individual Differences, 36(6), 1387-1402. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0191-8869(03)00236-8
Bradley, C. (2011). Women in AA: “Sharing experience, strength and hope” the relational nature of spirituality. Journal of Religion & Spirituality in Social Work: Social Thought, 30(2), 89–112. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/15426432.2011.567111
Buck, H. G. (2006). Spirituality: concept analysis and model development. Holistic Nursing Practice, 20(6), 288-292. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1097/00004650-200611000-00006
Buck, H. G., & Meghani, S. H. (2012). Spiritual expressions of African Americans and Whites in cancer pain. Journal of Holistic Nursing, 30(2), 107–116. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0898010111423420
Cabello, R., Sorrel, M. A., Fernández-Pinto, I., Extremera, N., & Fernández-Berrocal, P. (2016). Age and gender differences in ability emotional intelligence in adults: A cross-sectional study. Developmental Psychology, 52(9), 1486. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/dev0000191
Carroll, B. (2001). A phenomenological exploration of the nature of spirituality and spiritual care. Mortality, 6, 81–98. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/13576270020028656
Chu, L. C. (2010). The benefits of meditation vis?à?vis emotional intelligence, perceived stress and negative mental health. Stress and Health: Journal of the International Society for the Investigation of Stress, 26(2), 169-180. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/smi.1289
Coppola, I., Rania, N., Parisi, R., & Lagomarsino, F. (2021). Spiritual well-being and mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic in Italy. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 12, 626944. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2021.626944
Davies, K. A., Lane, A. M., Devonport, T. J., & Scott, J. A. (2010). Validity and reliability of a brief emotional intelligence scale (BEIS-10). Journal of Individual Differences, 31(4), 198-208. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1027/1614-0001/a000028
Delgado, C. (2005). A discussion of the concept of spirituality. Nursing Science Quarterly, 18(2), 157-162. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0894318405274828
Ellison, C. W. (1983). Spiritual well-being: Conceptualization and measurement. Journal of Psychology and Theology, 11(4), 330–340. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/009164718301100406
Gaur, K. L., & Sharma, M. (2014). Measuring spiritual health: spiritual health assessment scale (SHAS). International Journal of Innovative Research and Development, 3(3), 63-7.
Gayathri, N., & Meenakshi, K. (2013). A literature review of emotional intelligence. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science Invention, 2(3), 42-51.
Ghaderi, A., Tabatabaei, S. M., Nedjat, S., Javadi, M., & Larijani, B. (2018). Explanatory definition of the concept of spiritual health: a qualitative study in Iran. Journal of Medical Ethics and History of Medicine, 11, 3.
Gomez, R., & Fisher, J. W. (2003). Domains of spiritual well-being and development and validation of the Spiritual Well-Being Questionnaire. Personality and Individual Differences, 35(8), 1975-1991. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0191-8869(03)00045-X
Heydari, A., Khorashadizadeh, F., Nabavi, F. H., Mazlom, S. R., & Ebrahimi, M. (2016). Spiritual health in nursing from the viewpoint of Islam. Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal, 18(6), e24288. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5812/ircmj.24288
Hiatt, J. F. (1986). Spirituality, medicine, and healing. Southern Medical Journal, 79, 736–743. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1097/00007611-198606000-00022
Hilton, J. M., & Child, S. L. (2014). Spirituality and the successful aging of older Latinos. Counseling and Values, 59(1), 17-34. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/j.2161-007X.2014.00039.x
Hooda, D., Sharma, N. R., & Yadava, A. (2011). Emotional intelligence and spiritual health among adults. Journal of the Indian Academy of Applied Psychology, 37(2), 246-250.
Hsiao, Y. C., Chiang, H. Y., & Chien, L. Y. (2010). An exploration of the status of spiritual health among nursing students in Taiwan. Nurse education Today, 30(5), 386-392. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nedt.2009.05.001
Jahani, A., Rejeh, N., Heravi-Karimooi, M., Hadavi, A., Zayeri, F., & Khatooni, A. R. (2013). The relationship between spiritual health and quality of life in patients with coronary artery disease. Islamic Life Center Health, 1(2), 17-21. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5812/ilch.8575
Mayer, J. D., & Salovey, P. (1997). What is emotional intelligence? In P. Salovey & D. J. Sluyter (Eds.), Emotional development and emotional intelligence: Educational implications (pp. 3–34). Basic Books.
Mohebbifar, R., Pakpour, A. H., Nahvijou, A., & Sadeghi, A. (2015). Relationship between spiritual health and quality of life in patients with cancer. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention, 16(16), 7321-7326. DOI: https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.16.7321
Mustafa, M., Batool, A., Fatima, B., Nawaz, F., Toyama, K., & Raza, A. A. (2020, April). Patriarchy, maternal health and spiritual healing: Designing maternal health interventions in Pakistan. In Proceedings of the 2020 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (pp. 1-13). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1145/3313831.3376294
O'Connor, P. J., Hill, A., Kaya, M., & Martin, B. (2019). The Measurement of Emotional Intelligence: A Critical Review of the Literature and Recommendations for Researchers and Practitioners. Frontiers in Psychology, 10, 1116. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.01116 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.01116
Parveen, S. A., Sehar, S., & Mustufa, D. (2021). Spirituality, Spiritual Well-Being and Spiritual Care Competence among Nurses during the Third Wave of Corona Virus in Faisalabad, Pakistan. Saudi J Nurs Health Care, 4(6), 141-7.
Rich, Alvin II, "Gender and Spirituality: Are Women Really More Spiritual?" (2012). Senior Honors Theses. 281.
Riley, B. B., Perna, R., Tate, D. G., Forchheimer, M., Anderson, C., & Luera, G. (1998). Types of spiritual well-being among persons with chronic illness: Their relation to various forms of quality of life. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 79(3), 258-264. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0003-9993(98)90004-1
Roxana Dev, O. D., Ismi Arif, I., Maria Chong, A., & Soh Kim, G. (2014). Emotional intelligence as an underlying psychological mechanism on physical activity among Malaysian adolescents. Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research, 19, 166-171.
Salovey, P., & Mayer, J. D. (1990). Emotional intelligence. Imagination, Cognition and Personality, 9(3), 185-211. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2190/DUGG-P24E-52WK-6CDG
Solaimanizadeh, F., Mohammadinia, N., & Solaimanizadeh, L. (2020). The Relationship Between Spiritual Health and Religious Coping with Death Anxiety in the Elderly. Journal of Religion and Health, 59(4), 1925–1932. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10943-019-00906-7 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10943-019-00906-7
Taghavi, S., Afshar, P. F., Bagheri, T., Naderi, N., Amin, A., & Khalili, Y. (2020). The relationship between spiritual health and quality of life of heart transplant candidates. Journal of Religion and Health, 59(3), 1652-1665. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10943-019-00950-3
Vachon, M., Fillion, L., & Achille, M. (2009). A conceptual analysis of spirituality at the end of life. Journal of Palliative Medicine, 12(1), 53–59. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1089/jpm.2008.0189
Wang, Y. C., & Lin, C. C. (2016). Spiritual well-being may reduce the negative impacts of cancer symptoms on the quality of life and the desire for hastened death in terminally ill cancer patients. Cancer Nursing, 39(4), E43-E50. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1097/NCC.0000000000000298
Yarbeigi, R., Azadi, A., Veisani, Y., & Mousavimoghadam, S. R. (2021). Investigating the Relationship between Demographic Variables And Emotional Intelligence and Spiritual Health in the Nurses Working in the Teaching Hospitals of Ilam. Indian Journal of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology, 15(2), 3337-3344.
Yin, H. B., Lee, J. C. K., & Zhang, Z. H. (2013). Exploring the relationship among teachers’ emotional intelligence, emotional labor strategies and teaching satisfaction. Teaching and Teacher Education, 35, 137-145. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2013.06.006
Young, E. W. (1984). Spiritual health—an essential element in optimum health. Journal of American College Health, 32(6), 273-276. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/07448481.1984.9939584
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2023 Hamna Imran, Saba Shabir
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0) License: This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial 4.0 International License (https://www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits non-Commercial use, reproduction
and distribution of the work without further permission provided the original work is attributed as specified on the Journal website at (https://iprpk.com/ojs/index.php/jpap)