Adaptation of Hung Postpartum Stress Scale in Urdu Language


  • Sehrish Wazir Lecturer, Department of Applied Psychology, Government Sadiq College Women University, Bahawalpur, Pakistan.
  • Saba Bashir Lecturer, Department of Applied Psychology, Government Sadiq College Women University, Bahawalpur, Pakistan.
  • Sidra Sattar MSc Scholar, Department of Applied Psychology, Government Sadiq College Women University, Bahawalpur, Pakistan.



Convergent Validity, Exploratory Factor Analysis, Face Validity, Hung Postpartum Stress Scale, Postpartum Mothers, Test-retest Reliability


Postpartum period is one of the sensitive period in any women’s life. As Hung Postpartum Stress Scale is the effective scale that measures level of stress in postpartum mothers. So, the study was conducted to translate and adapt this scale for Pakistani population. The aim was to translate this stress scale into Urdu language and to establish its psychometric properties. 343 postpartum mothers from government hospitals of Bahawalpur were studied for this purpose. Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) was conducted and validity was measured. Test-retest reliability analysis was conducted which shows high value of reliability of the translated version. The reliability value is .90 which is considered as ideal value. In order to establish the validity, convergent validity and face validity analyses were conducted. Their results also support the acceptable validity of the translated version. This adapted version is easy to use for those who can speak and understand Urdu.


Adewuya, O. A., & Afolabi, T. O. (2005). The Course of Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms in Nigerian Postpartum Women. Archives of Women Health and Care, 8(4), 257-259. doi: 10.1007/s00737-0050-0089-5 DOI:

Ayers, S., Crawley, R., Webb, R., Button, S., & Thornton, A. (2019). What Are Women Stressed About After Birth. Birth Issues in Prenatal Care, 46(4), 678-685. doi: 10.1111/birt12455 DOI:

Blum, R. W., & Gates, W. H. (2015). Girlhood, Not Motherhood: Preventing Adolescent Pregnancy. UNFPA.

Center for Disease Control and Prevention (2021). Benefits of Physical Activity. Centers for disease Control and Prevention.

Cho, H., Lee, K., Choi, E., Cho, H. N., Park, B., Suh, M., Rhee, Y., & Choi, S. K. (2022). Association Between Social Support and Postpartum Depression. Scientific Reports, 12, 3128. DOI:

Cohen, S., Kamarck, T., & Mermelstein, R. (1983). A Global Measure of Perceived Stress. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 24(4), 385-396. DOI:

Connelly, L. M. (2008). Research Roundtable: Pilot studies. Medsurg Nursing, 17(6), 411–412. DOI:

Dobson, V., & Sales, B. (2000). "The Science of Infanticide and Mental Illness". Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 6 (4), 1098–1112. doi:10.1037/1076-8971.6.4.1098 DOI:

Gronowski, Ann M., & Schindler, E. I. (2014). Women's Health". Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigations, 244, 2–7. doi:10.3109/00365513.2014.936672 DOI:

Hales, E., & Yudofsky, J. A. (2003). The American Psychiatric Press Textbook of Psychiatry, Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing. DOI:

Hung, C. H. (2005). Measuring Postpartum Stress. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 50(4), 417-24. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2648.2005.03407.x DOI:

Hung, H. C. (2007). The Postpartum Stress Scale. Journal of Nursing Scholarship. 39(1), 71-74. doi: 10.1111/j.1547-5069.2007.00146 DOI:

Kazemi, F., Masoumi, Z. S., Sutani, F., Oshvandi, K., Ghelichkhani, S., & Niazy, Z. (2020). Postpartum Women’s Perception of Stressors in the Delivery Ward: A Qualitative Study. BMC Research Notes, 13(335). doi:10.1186/s13104-020-05176-1 DOI:

McGuire, E. (2013). "Maternal and infant sleep postpartum". Breastfeeding Review. 21(2), 38–41.

Nour, N. M. (2014). Global women's health – A global perspective". Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation. 74, 8-12. doi:10.3109/00365513.2014.936673. DOI:

Paulson, J. F. (2010). Focusing on Depression in Expectant and New Fathers: Prenatal and Postpartum Depression Not Limited to Mothers". Psychiatric Times, 27(2), 48.

Pearlstein, T., Howard, M., Salisbury, A., & Zlotnick, C. (2009). "Postpartum Depression". American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 200(4), 357-64. doi:10.1016/j.ajog.2008.11.033. DOI:

Roets, M., Brand, L., & Steyn, F. S. (2023). Increased Depressive-Like Behavior of Postpartum Flinders Sensitive and Resistant Line Rats is Reserved by A Predictable Postpartum Stressor. Behavioral Brain Research, 442. DOI:

Romano, M., Cacciatore, A., Giordano, R., & La Rosa, B. (2010). Postpartum period: Three Distinct But Continuous Phases". Journal of Prenatal Medicine, 8(5), 15–2. doi:10.1002/anie.201108814 DOI:

World Health Organization. (2006). Definition of Health: Constitution of World Health Organization Basic Documents (ed. 45).,belief%2C%20economic%20or%20social%20condition

World Health Organization. Regional Office for South-East Asia. (?2013)?. Promoting health throughout the life-course. WHO Regional Office for South-East Asia.

World Health Organization. (2016). Women Health.




How to Cite

Wazir, S. ., Bashir, S. ., & Sattar, S. . (2023). Adaptation of Hung Postpartum Stress Scale in Urdu Language. Journal of Professional & Applied Psychology, 4(2), 190–199.