Relationship between Family Functioning, Personality Traits, and Psychological Health in Clinical Psychology Trainees


  • Maha Iftikhar Clinical Assessment Specialist, Lahore University of Management Sciences (LUMS), Lahore, Pakistan.
  • Elizabeth Maria Schwaiger Associate Professor, Department of Psychology, Forman Christian College (A Chartered University), Lahore, Pakistan.



Family Functioning, Personality Traits, Psychological Health


This research was intended to explore in what way family functioning and personality traits predicts psychological health in clinical psychology trainees. These three variables were never studied together in Pakistan, and it provided the clarity about the impact of both individual and collectivistic variables on psychological health. This study aimed to determine the extent to which family functioning and personality traits predict psychological health in clinical psychology trainees. The study comprised of 135 clinical psychology trainees (30 males, 105 females). Snowball sampling was used to collect the data through online questionnaire. The data were collected from seven major cities of Pakistan like Lahore, Karachi, Islamabad, Hyderabad, Faisalabad, Multan, and Peshawar. Hierarchical Linear Model was used to analyze the data and the major finding indicated that neuroticism was the predictor of higher psychological health in clinical psychology trainees whereas agreeableness, conscientiousness, extraversion, and openness did not predict psychological health of clinical psychology trainees. Family functioning did not play significant role in predicting psychological health of clinical psychology trainees. However, this study was significant as the psychological health of the clinical psychology trainees is important because they treat people with psychological illnesses. If trainees would not be psychologically well, they would not be able to treat their clients well.


Aali, S., & Kadivar, R. (2015). Predicting the mental health profile based on the developmental family function components. Journal of Fundamentals of Mental Health, 17(6), 300-307.

Amini, L., Heidary, M., & Daneshparvar, H. (2015). Personality traits and their impacts on the mental health of battered women. Journal of Midwifery and Reproductive Health, 3(2), 349-354.

Batool, N., & Hanif, R. (2018). Differential Relationships of Big Five Personality Traits with Positive Mental Health and Psychopathology: Examining Dual Continua Model of Positive Mental Health in Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 16(2), 3-9.

Beusenberg, M., Orley, J. H., & World Health Organization, Division of Mental Health (?1994)?. A User's guide to the self reporting questionnaire (?SRQ / compiled by M. Beusenberg and J. Orley. World Health Organization.

Burešová, I., Jelínek, M., Dosedlová, J., & Klimusová, H. (2020). Predictors of mental health in adolescence: the role of personality, dispositional optimism, and social support. Sage Open, 10(2), 2158244020917963. DOI:

Butler, C. (2015). Family functioning and its relationship to adolescent mental health (Doctoral dissertation, Royal Holloway, University of London).

Dolz-del-Castellar, B., & Oliver, J. (2021). Relationship between family functioning, differentiation of self and anxiety in Spanish young adults. PloS One, 16(3), e0246875. DOI:

Epstein, N. B., Baldwin, L. M., & Bishop, D. S. (1983). The McMaster family assessment device. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 9(2), 171-180. DOI:

Epstein, N. B., Bishop, D. S., & Levin, S. (1978). The McMaster model of family functioning. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 4(4), 19-31. DOI:

Goldberg, L.R. (1993). The structure of phenotypic personality traits: Authors? reactions to the six comments. American Psychologist, 48, 1303-1304. DOI:

Habibi, Z., Sadeghi, H., Haghrangbar, F., Madanipour, K., & Azarnoosh, A. (2013). The study of personality characteristics and mental health in addicts. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 84, 509-513. DOI:

Hayward, R. D., Taylor, W. D., Smoski, M. J., Steffens, D. C., & Payne, M. E. (2013). Association of five-factor model personality domains and facets with presence, onset, and treatment outcomes of major depression in older adults. The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 21(1), 88-96. DOI:

Javed, A., Khan, M. N. S., Nasar, A., & Rasheed, A. (2020). Mental healthcare in Pakistan. Taiwanese Journal of Psychiatry, 34(1), 6. DOI:

John, O. P., & Srivastava, S. (1999). The Big-Five trait taxonomy: History, measurement, and theoretical perspectives (Vol. 2, pp. 102-138). Berkeley: University of California.

Koorevaar, A. M. L., Comijs, H. C., Dhondt, A. D. F., Van Marwijk, H. W. J., Van Der Mast, R. C., Naarding, P., Voshaar, R. C. O., & Stek, M. L. (2013). Big Five personality and depression diagnosis, severity, and age of onset in older adults. Journal of Affective Disorders, 151(1), 178-185. DOI:

Kotov, R., Gamez, W., Schmidt, F., & Watson, D. (2010). Linking “big” personality traits to anxiety, depressive, and substance use disorders: a meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 136(5), 768. DOI:

Lewandowski, A. S., Palermo, T. M., Stinson, J., Handley, S., & Chambers, C. T. (2010). Systematic review of family functioning in families of children and adolescents with chronic pain. The Journal of Pain, 11(11), 1027-1038. DOI:

Lewis, G. J., & Bates, T. C. (2014). How genes influence personality: Evidence from multi-facet twin analyses of the HEXACO dimensions. Journal of Research in Personality, 51, 9-17. DOI:

Manwell, L. A., Barbic, S. P., Roberts, K., Durisko, Z., Lee, C., Ware, E., & McKenzie, K. (2015). What is mental health? Evidence towards a new definition from a mixed methods multidisciplinary international survey. BMJ Open, 5(6), e007079. DOI:

McCrae, R. R., & Costa, P. T. (1987). Validation of the five-factor model of personality across instruments and observers. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52(1), 81. DOI:

Mirnics, Z., Heincz, O., Bagdy, G., Surányi, Z., Gonda, X., Benko, A., Molnar, E., Jaksic, N., Lazary, J., & Juhasz, G. (2013). The relationship between the big five personality dimensions and acute psychopathology: mediating and moderating effects of coping strategies. Psychiatria Danubina, 25(4), 0-388.

Oltean, I. (2019). The impact of family functioning on child mental health service use and access (Master's Thesis, University of Waterloo).

Ormel, J., Jeronimus, B. F., Kotov, R., Riese, H., Bos, E. H., Hankin, B., Rosmalen, J. G. M., & Oldehinkel, A. J. (2013). Neuroticism and common mental disorders: Meaning and utility of a complex relationship. Clinical Psychology Review, 33(5), 686-697. DOI:

Pallant, J. (2013). SPSS survival manual. McGraw-Hill Education.

Pan, Y., Yang, Z., Han, X., & Qi, S. (2020). Family functioning and mental health among secondary vocational students during the COVID-19 epidemic: A moderated mediation model. Personality and Individual Differences, 110490. DOI:

Pervin, L. A., & John, O. P. (Eds.). (1999). Handbook of personality: Theory and Research (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford Press.

Shi, J., Yao, Y., Zhan, C., Mao, Z., Yin, F., & Zhao, X. (2018). The relationship between big five personality traits and psychotic experience in a large non-clinical youth sample: the mediating role of emotion regulation. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 9, 648. DOI:

Van der Westhuizen, C., Wyatt, G., Williams, J. K., Stein, D. J., & Sorsdahl, K. (2016). Validation of the self-reporting questionnaire 20-item (SRQ-20) for use in a low-and middle-income country emergency center setting. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 14(1), 37-48. DOI:

World Health Organization (2022, June 17). Mental Health.



How to Cite

Iftikhar, M. ., & Schwaiger , E. M. . (2023). Relationship between Family Functioning, Personality Traits, and Psychological Health in Clinical Psychology Trainees. Journal of Professional & Applied Psychology, 4(1), 42–52.