Impact of Job Crafting Intervention on Psychological Empowerment, Work Engagement, and Affective Well-being in Teachers
Keywords:Affective Well-being, Employees, Job Crafting Intervention, Job Demands, Psychological Empowerment, Work Engagement
Organizations are under a lot of pressure to survive in the ever-changing world of competition. Human resources are a critical aspect for which there is no substitute. Job crafting is a component that can assist employees to improve the positive aspects of their work while reducing the negative aspects' impact. The study's main goal is to see how a job crafting intervention affects employees' psychological empowerment, work engagement, and affective well-being. It is a quasi-experimental design including both experimental and control groups. The population consists of teachers. Job crafting intervention was provided to the employees. It consists of six core elements including three sessions and pre-post testing taking a total of the six-week time period. Pre-testing and post-testing were done by using the Job Crafting questionnaire developed by Tims et al. (2012), Psychological Empowerment Scale (Spreitzer, 1995), Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES; Schaufeli et al., 2006) and Job-related Affective Well-being Scale, JAWS (Van Katwyk et al., 2000). A paired sample t-test was run to see the effect of job crafting intervention on job crafting, psychological empowerment, work engagement, and affective well-being. The results were positive and significant. The relationship between job crafting, psychological empowerment, work engagement, and affective well-being was also assessed and there was a positive and significant correlation. The job crafting training can make it achievable to initiate employees’ active job crafting behavior and work engagement. Employers should recognize the need to assist and motivate staff to maximize their resources and meet their challenges.
Albrecht, K. (2010). Stress and the Manager. Simon and Schuster.
Bakker, A. B., & Demerouti, E. (2014). Job demands–resources theory. Wellbeing: A complete reference guide, 1-28. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118539415.wbwell019
Bandura, A. (1989). Human agency in social cognitive theory. American Psychologist, 44(9), 1175. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.44.9.1175
Bell, N. E., & Staw, B. M. (1989). People as sculptors versus sculpture: The roles of personality and personal control in organizations. Handbook of career theory, pp. 232, 251. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511625459.014
Berg, J. M., Dutton, J. E., & Wrzesniewski, A. (2013). Job crafting and meaningful work. In B. J. Dik, Z. S. Byrne, & M. F. Steger (Eds.), Purpose and meaning in the workplace (pp. 81–104). American Psychological Association. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/14183-005
Brief, A. P., & Nord, W. R. (1990). Work and meaning: Definitions and interpretations. In A. P. Brief & W. R. Nord (Eds.), Meanings of occupational work: A collection of essays (pp. 1–19). Lexington Books/D. C. Heath and Com.
Crawford, E. R., LePine, J. A., & Rich, B. L. (2010). Linking job demands and resources to employee engagement and burnout: a theoretical extension and meta-analytic test. Journal of Applied Psychology, 95(5), 834. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/a0019364
Clegg, C. W., & Wall, T. D. (1981). Notes on some new scales for measuring aspects of psychological well-being. Journal of Occupational Psychology, 52(22), 1-225. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8325.1981.tb00062.x
Deci, E. L., Connell, J. P., & Ryan, R. M. (1989). Self-determination in a work organization. Journal of Applied Psychology, 74(4), 580. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.74.4.580
Diener, E., & Larsen, R. J. (1993). The experience of emotional well-being. In M. Lewis & J. M. Haviland (Eds.), Handbook of emotions (pp. 405–415). The Guilford Press.
Feldman, L. A. (1995). Valence focus and arousal focus: Individual differences in the structure of affective experience. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69(1), 153. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-35126.96.36.199
Gist, M. E. (1987). Self-efficacy: Implications for organizational behavior and human resource management. Academy of Management Review, 12(3), 472-485. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5465/amr.1987.4306562
Gordon, H. J., Demerouti, E., Le Blanc, P. M., Bakker, A. B., Bipp, T., & Verhagen, M. A. (2018). Individual job redesign: Job crafting interventions in healthcare. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 104, 98-114. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2017.07.002
Gorgievski, M., & Hobfoll, S. E. (2008). Work can burn us out and fire us up. Handbook of stress and burnout in health care, 7-22.
Hakanen, J. J., & Roodt, G. (2010). Using the job demands-resources model to predict engagement: Analysing a conceptual model. Work engagement: A handbook of essential theory and research, 2(1), 85-101.
Hobfoll, S. E., Johnson, R. J., Ennis, N., & Jackson, A. P. (2003). Resource loss, resource gain, and emotional outcomes among inner city women. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84(3), 632. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-35188.8.131.522
Hulshof, I. L., Demerouti, E., & Le Blanc, P. M. (2020). A job search demands-resources intervention among the unemployed: Effects on well-being, job search behavior and reemployment chances. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 25(1), 17. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/ocp0000167
Judge, T. A., & Piccolo, R. F. (2004). Transformational and transactional leadership: a meta-analytic test of their relative validity. Journal of Applied Psychology, 89(5), 755. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.89.5.755
Kass, S. J., Vodanovich, S. J., Stanny, C. J., & Taylor, T. M. (2001). Watching the clock: Boredom and vigilance performance. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 92(3_suppl), 969-976. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/003151250109203c01
Kilic, E., Tatar, B., & Erdil, O. (2020). A research on the relationship between job crafting, psychological empowerment and turnover intention. Ya?ar Üniversitesi E-Dergisi, 15, 192-200.
Khan, M. M., Khan, E., & Imran, S. A. (2018). Using job crafting to improve the well-being and faculty performance: The case of higher education institutions of Pakistan. The Global Management Journal for Academic and Corporate Studies, 8(1), 13-13.
Kulik, C. T., Oldham, G. R., & Hackman, J. R. (1987). Work design as an approach to person-environment fit. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 31(3), 278-296. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0001-8791(87)90044-3
LePine, J. A., Podsakoff, N. P., & LePine, M. A. (2005). A meta-analytic test of the challenge stressor–hindrance stressor framework: An explanation for inconsistent relationships among stressors and performance. Academy of Management Journal, 48(5), 764-775. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5465/amj.2005.18803921
Newton, C. R., Graham, A., Heptinstall, L. E., Powell, S. J., Summers, C., Kalsheker, N., ... & Markham, A. (1989). Analysis of any point mutation in DNA. The amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS). Nucleic Acids Research, 17(7), 2503-2516. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/17.7.2503
Oladipo, S. E. (2009). Psychological empowerment and development. Edo Journal of Counselling, 2(1), 118-126. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4314/ejc.v2i1.52661
Parker, S. K., Bindl, U. K., & Strauss, K. (2010). Making things happen: A model of proactive motivation. Journal of Management, 36(4), 827-856. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0149206310363732
Quinn, R. E., & Spreitzer, G. M. (1997). The road to empowerment: Seven questions every leader should consider. Organizational Dynamics, 26(2), 37-49. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0090-2616(97)90004-8
Quiñones, M., Van den Broeck, A., & De Witte, H. (2013). Do job resources affect work engagement via psychological empowerment? A mediation analysis. Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 29(3), 127–134. https://doi.org/10.5093/tr2013a18 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5093/tr2013a18
Sakuraya, A., Shimazu, A., Imamura, K., & Kawakami, N. (2020). Effects of a job crafting intervention program on work engagement among Japanese employees: A randomized controlled trial. Frontiers in Psychology, 11, 235. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.00235
Schaufeli, W. B., & Bakker, A. B. (2004). Job demands, job resources, and their relationship with burnout and engagement: A multi?sample study. Journal of Organizational Behavior: The International Journal of Industrial, Occupational and Organizational Psychology and Behavior, 25(3), 293-315. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/job.248
Schaufeli, W. B., Bakker, A. B., & Salanova, M. (2006). The measurement of work engagement with a short questionnaire: A cross-national study. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 66(4), 701-716. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0013164405282471
Schaufeli, W. B., Bakker, A. B., & Van Rhenen, W. (2009). How changes in job demands and resources predict burnout, work engagement, and sickness absenteeism. Journal of Organizational Behavior: The International Journal of Industrial, Occupational and Organizational Psychology and Behavior, 30(7), 893-917. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/job.595
Shapira-Lishchinsky, O., & Tsemach, S. (2014). Psychological empowerment as a mediator between teachers’ perceptions of authentic leadership and their withdrawal and citizenship behaviors. Educational Administration Quarterly, 50(4), 675-712. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0013161X13513898
Spector, P. E. (1986). Perceived control by employees: A meta-analysis of studies concerning autonomy and participation at work. Human Relations, 39(11), 1005-1016. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/001872678603901104
Spreitzer, G. M. (1995). Psychological empowerment in the workplace: Dimensions, measurement, and validation. Academy of Management Journal, 38(5), 1442-1465. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5465/256865
Spreitzer, G. M. (2008). Taking stock: A review of more than twenty years of research on empowerment at work. Handbook of organizational behavior, 1, 54-72. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4135/9781849200448.n4
Taylor, A. (2013). Reconfiguring the natures of childhood. Routledge. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203582046
Thomas, K. W., & Velthouse, B. A. (1990). Cognitive elements of empowerment: An “interpretive” model of intrinsic task motivation. Academy of Management Review, 15(4), 666-681. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5465/amr.1990.4310926
Tims, M., & Bakker, A. B. (2010). Job crafting: Towards a new model of individual job redesign. South African Journal of Industrial Psychology, 36(2), 1-9. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4102/sajip.v36i2.841
Tims, M., Bakker, A. B., & Derks, D. (2012). Development and validation of the job crafting scale. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 80(1), 173-186. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2011.05.009
Van den Heuvel, M., Demerouti, E., & Peeters, M. C. W. (2015). The job crafting intervention: Effects on job resources, self efficacy, and affective well being. Journal of Occupational & Organizational Psychology, 88(2), 1-22. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/joop.12128
Van Katwyk, P. T., Fox, S., Spector, P. E., & Kelloway, E. K. (2000). Using the Job-Related Affective Well-Being Scale (JAWS) to investigate affective responses to work stressors. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 5(2), 219. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/1076-89184.108.40.206
Van Wingerden, J., Bakker, A. B., & Derks, D. (2017). The longitudinal impact of a job crafting intervention. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 26(1), 107-119. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/1359432X.2016.1224233
Warr, P. (1990). The measurement of well?being and other aspects of mental health. Journal of Occupational Psychology, 63(3), 193-210. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8325.1990.tb00521.x
Wrzesniewski, A., & Dutton, J. E. (2001). Crafting a job: Revisioning employees as active crafters of their work. Academy of Management Review, 26(2), 179-201. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5465/amr.2001.4378011
Xanthopoulou, D., Bakker, A. B., Demerouti, E., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2009). Reciprocal relationships between job resources, personal resources, and work engagement. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 74(3), 235-244. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2008.11.003
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2023 Asma Mushtaq, Haziq Mehmood
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0) License: This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial 4.0 International License (https://www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits non-Commercial use, reproduction
and distribution of the work without further permission provided the original work is attributed as specified on the Journal website at (https://iprpk.com/ojs/index.php/jpap)