Parenting Styles and Psychological Well-Being: The Role of Emotional Intelligence


  • Rameen Tahir BS (Hons) Scholar, Department of Psychology, Forman Christian College (A Chartered University), Lahore, Pakistan.
  • Shaista Jabeen Associate Professor, Department of Psychology, Forman Christian College (A Chartered University), Lahore, Pakistan.



Parenting Styles, Parenting, Emotional Intelligence, Psychological Well-being


Parents are one of the most important relations in a child’s life. Other relationships, experiences and skills can also significantly impact children. One of these is ability of emotional intelligence, a learned skill. This research aimed to investigate whether emotional intelligence predicts psychological well-being in young adults better than their perceived parenting styles. In a survey of 240 undergraduate students of Forman Christian College (A Chartered University), Lahore (having both parents alive in their childhood) were included in the sample. Parental Authority Questionnaire, Schutte’s Self-report Emotional Intelligence Test and Ryff’s Psychological Well-Being Scale, were used to assess the parenting styles, ability of emotional intelligence and psychological well-being respectively. Although maternal (r= -.271) and paternal (r= -.230) authoritarianism and maternal authoritativeness (r= .145) significantly correlated with psychological well-being, emotional intelligence (r= .336) was the only significant predictor of psychological well-being and contributed to 10.5% unique variance. This has significant implications for researchers and practitioners planning interventions to improve psychological well-being of young adults. Further, recommendations and future directions have been discussed. 


Abubakar, A., Van de Vijver, F. J. R., Suryani, A. O., Handayani, P., & Pandia, W. S. (2015). Perceptions of parenting styles and their associations with mental health and life satisfaction among urban Indonesian adolescents. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 24, 2680–2692. DOI:

Akhtar, N., Hanif, R., Tariq, N., & Atta, M. (2011). Parenting styles as predictors of externalizing and internalizing behavior problems among children. Pakistan Journal of Psychological Research, 26(1), 23-41.

Arulsubila, M., & Subasree, R. (2017). Parenting and psychological wellbeing of adolescents- an intervention study. Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 5, 1-9.

Baumrind, D. (1971). Current patterns of parental authority. Developmental Psychology Monograph, 4(1), 1-103. DOI:

Buri, J. R. (1991). Parental authority questionnaire. Journal of Personality Assessment, 57(1), 110-119. DOI:

Burrus, J., Betancourt, A., Holtzman, S., Minsky, J., MacCann, C., & Roberts, R. D. (2012). Emotional intelligence relates to well-being: Evidence from the situational judgment test of emotional management. Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being, 4(2), 151–166. DOI:

Carmeli, A., Yitzhak?Halevy, M., & Weisberg, J. (2009). The relationship between emotional intelligence and psychological wellbeing. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 24 (1), 66-78. DOI:

Cripps, K., & Zyromski, B. (2009). Adolescents’ psychological well-being and perceived parental involvement: implications for parental involvement in middle schools. Research in Middle Level Education Online, 33(4), 1-13, DOI:

Extremera, N., & Rey, L. (2016). Ability emotional intelligence and life satisfaction: positive and negative affect as mediators. Personality and Individual Differences, 102, 98-101. DOI:

Fletcher, A. C., Steinberg, L., & Sellers, E. B. (1999). Adolescents' Well-Being as a Function of Perceived Interparental Consistency. Journal of Marriage and Family, 61(3), 599-610. DOI:

Gallagher, E. N., & Vella-Brodrick, D. A. (2008). Social support and emotional intelligence as predictors of subjective well-being. Personality and Individual Differences, 44(7), 1551–1561. DOI:

Gilar-Corbi, R., Pozo-Rico, T., Sa´nchez, B., & Castejo´n, J-L. (2019). Can emotional intelligence be improved? A randomized experimental study of a business-oriented EI training program for senior managers. PLoS ONE, 14(10). DOI:

Guerra-Bustamante, J., León-del-Barco, B., Yuste-Tosina, R., López-Ramos, V. M., & Mendo-Lázaro, S. (2019). Emotional intelligence and psychological well-being in adolescents. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 16, 1-12. DOI:

Horstman, H., Hays, A., & Maliski, R. (2016). Parent-Child Interaction. In J. Nussbaum (Ed.), Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Communication. Oxford University Press. DOI:

Huppert, F. A. (2009). Psychological well-being: Evidence regarding its causes and consequences. Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being, 1 (2), 137-164. DOI:

Kohlberg, L., Ricks, D., & Snarey, J. (1984). Child development as a predictor of adaptation in adulthood. Genetic Psychology Monographs, 110, 91-172.

Landa, J. A., Pulido-Martos, M., & Lopez-Zafra, E. (2010). Emotional intelligence and personality traits as predictors of psychological well-being in Spanish undergraduates. Social Behavior and Personality: An International Journal, 38(6), 783-794. DOI:

Llamas-Díaz, D. Cabello, R. Megías-Robles, A. Fernández-Berrocal, P. (2022). Systematic review and meta-analysis: The association between emotional intelligence and subjective well-being in adolescents. Journal of Adolescence, 94(7), 925-38. DOI: 10.1002/jad.12075 DOI:

Malinauskas, R.., & Malinauskiene, V. (2020). The relationship between emotional intelligence and psychological well-being among male university students: The mediating role of perceived social support and perceived stress. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(5), 1605. DOI:

Milevsky, A., Schlechter, M., Klem, L., & Kehl, R. (2008). Constellations of maternal and paternal parenting styles in adolescence: congruity and well-being. Marriage & Family Review, 44(1), 81-98. DOI:

Pallant, J. (2005). SPSS Survival manual: A Step by Step Guide to Data Analysis Using SPSS for Windows (3rd ed). New York: Open University Press.

Reilly, P. J. (2022). Developing emotionally intelligent work teams improves performance and organizational wellbeing: A literature review. New Review of Academic Librarianship, 10.1080/13614533.2022.2112716 DOI:

Ryan, R., O'Farrelly, C., & Ramchandani, P. (2017). Parenting and child mental health. London Journal of Primary Care, 9(6), 86–94. DOI:

Ryff, C. D. (1989). Happiness is everything, or is it? Explorations on the meaning of psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57(6), 1069-1081. DOI:

Ryff, C. D., & Keyes, C. L. M. (1995). The structure of psychological well-being revisited. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69(4), 719-727. DOI:

Sahithya, B. R., Manohari, S. M., & Vijaya, R. (2019). Parenting styles and its impact on children – a cross cultural review with a focus on India. Mental Health, Religion & Culture, 22(4), 357-383. DOI:

Salovey, P., & Mayer, J. D. (1990). Emotional Intelligence. Baywood Publishing Co., Inc. DOI:

Schutte, N. S., Malouff, J. M., Hall, L. E., Haggerty, D. J., Cooper, J. T., Golden, C., J., & Liane, D. (1998). Development and validation of a measure of emotional intelligence. Personality and Individual Differences, 25, 167-177. DOI:

Shaheen, S., & Shaheen, H. (2016). Emotional intelligence in relation to psychological well-being among students. The International Journal of Indian Psychology, 3(4), 206-213. DOI:10.25215/0304.115 DOI:

Shahimi, F., Heaven, P., & Ciarrochi, J. (2013). The interrelations among the perception of parental styles and psychological well-being in adolescence: A longitudinal study. Iranian Journal of Public Health, 42(6), 570-580.

Shek, D. T. L. (1989). Perceptions of parental treatment styles and psychological well-being in Chinese adolescents. The Journal of Genetic Psychology, 150(4), 403-415. DOI:

Shucksmith, J., Hendry, L. B., & Glendinning, A. (1995). Models of parenting: Implications for adolescent well-being within different types of family contexts. Journal of Adolescence, 18, 253-270. DOI:

Taris, T. W., & Bok, I. A. (1997). Effects of parenting style upon psychological well?being of young adults: exploring the relations among parental care, locus of control and depression. Early Child Development and Care, 132(1), 93-104. DOI:

Tekin, G. E. (2021). An investigation of psychological well-being, emotional intelligence and social well-being levels of university students. Turkish Psychological Counseling and Guidance Journal, 11 (63), 567-575. DOI: 10.17066/tpdrd.1051414 DOI:

Ugoani, J. N. N., & Ewuzie, M. A. (2013). Imperatives of emotional intelligence on psychological wellbeing among adolescents. American Journal of Applied Psychology, 1 (3), 44-48. 10.12691/AJAP-1-3-3

Wischerth, G. A., Mulvaney, M. K., Brackett, M. A., & Perkins, D. (2016). The adverse influence of permissive parenting on personal growth and the mediating role of emotional intelligence. The Journal of Genetic Psychology, 177(5), 185-189. DOI:



How to Cite

Tahir, R., & Jabeen, . S. (2022). Parenting Styles and Psychological Well-Being: The Role of Emotional Intelligence. Journal of Professional & Applied Psychology, 3(3), 330–342.