Friendship Functions in Emerging Adults in Post COVID-19 Era-A Preliminary Exploration


  • Areeha Khan Durrani PhD Scholar, Department of Applied Psychology, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Pakistan.
  • Dr Muhammad Saleem Professor/Chairman, Department of Applied Psychology, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Pakistan.



Focus Group Discussion, Friendship Patterns and Functions, Pakistan, Preliminary Exploration, Reflexive Thematic Analysis


The outbreak of Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) has affected all spheres of human life without any exception. Friendship is considered a shield against odds, but some changes are observed in friendship patterns and functions of friendship in emerging adults of Pakistan. This significant change encouraged the researchers to design this qualitative study in an indigenous context. Two homogenous focus groups were conducted with educated emerging adults (10 males and 10 females in each group recruited purposefully from Punjab Province only). They were screened before induction and responses were audio-taped with their consent. After collection of data, transcription was finalized in the light of Humble (2015).  The transcribed data were analyzed through six step Reflexive Thematic Analysis (RTA) technique by Braun and Clarke (2019). Rigor of the data was also ensured according to Guba and Lincoln (1994). Resultantly, we arrive at a uniform definition of friendship and six emergent themes of friendship functions (being empathetic, flexibility, supportive, help and assistance, sharing and problem solving, and companionship). Further, findings of the study showcased that COVID-19 has negatively influenced the friendship functions by decreasing interdependence among friends that triggered loneliness and social isolation in emerging adults. COVID-19 has lasting effects on those friendship patterns which used to be visible until today. It is further recommended to expand this study on emerging adults of overall Pakistan to establish baseline data.


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How to Cite

Durrani, A. K., & Saleem, D. M. . (2022). Friendship Functions in Emerging Adults in Post COVID-19 Era-A Preliminary Exploration. Journal of Professional & Applied Psychology, 3(2), 293–305.