Content Validation of a Situational Judgment Test of Manager’s Integrity: A Qualitative Approach


  • Amna Rafique PhD Scholar, Institute of Applied Psychology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan.
  • Dr Saima Ghazal Associate Professor, Institute of Applied Psychology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan.



Leadership Effectiveness, Manager’s Integrity, Situational Judgement Test, Tool Development


Leader’s integrity appears to be a significant predictor of their effectiveness (Moorman et al., 2012), however, little empirical evidence has been found to address this relationship. It may be due, partly, to unavailability of sound assessment tools in this area. Current research describes development and content validation of a situational judgement test to assess manager’s integrity that will have potential benefits over existing unidimensional and Likert-type perceptual measures (Becker, 2005; Craig & Gustafson, 1998; Mills & Boardley,  2017). Ten managers and 7 subordinates from multinational organizations were interviewd for generating context specific siatuations and associated responses. Initially, 31 situations and associated 6-7 responses were extracted from interviews. Two independent rounds of subject matter experts (SMEs) reviews resulted in 22 situations and 3-5 associated responses. Finally, 16 situations and 3-5 associated responses were retained after calculating item content validity index (I-CVI) and scale validity index (S-CVI). The resulting test, labeled the manager’s integrity-SJT, displayed high content validity. Thus, present study advances research in the field of leadership by developing a situational judgements test for assessing manager’s integrity towards their subordinates that is pertinent predictor of leadership effectiveness (Moorman, et al., 2012).


Ackerman, P. L., & Heggestad, E. D. (1997). Intelligence, personality, and interests: Evidence for overlapping traits. Psychological Bulletin, 121(2), 219-245. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.121.2.219 DOI:

Arthur Jr, W., Glaze, R. M., Jarrett, S. M., White, C. D., Schurig, I., & Taylor, J. E. (2014). Comparative evaluation of three situational judgment test response formats in terms of construct-related validity, subgroup differences, and susceptibility to response distortion. Journal of Applied Psychology, 99(3), 535-545. DOI:

Barrett, P. (2001). Pre-employment integrity testing: Current methods, problems, and solutions. British Computer Society: Information Security Specialist Group.

Bass, B. M., & Steidlmeier, P. (1999). Ethics, character, and authentic transformational leadership behavior. The Leadership Quarterly, 10(2), 181-217. DOI:

Bass, B. M., & Stogdill, R. M. (1990). Bass & Stogdill's handbook of leadership: Theory, research, and managerial applications: Simon and Schuster.,+B.+M.,+%26+Stogdill,+R.+M.+(1990).+Bass+%26+Stogdill%27s+handbook+of+leadership:+Theory,+research,+and+managerial+applications:+&ots=FP07oQOtu0&sig=z9PYDo12JXQeBpKbDR3a-BT4EEo&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=Bass%2C%20B.%20M.%2C%20%26%20Stogdill%2C%20R.%20M.%20(1990).%20Bass%20%26%20Stogdill's%20handbook%20of%20leadership%3A%20Theory%2C%20research%2C%20and%20managerial%20applications%3A&f=false

Becker, T. E. (1998). Integrity in organizations: Beyond honesty and conscientiousness. Academy of Management Review, 23(1), 154-161. DOI:

Becker, T. E. (2005). Development and validation of a situational judgment test of employee integrity. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 13(3), 225-232. DOI:

Bennis, W., & Nanus, B. (1985). The Strategies for Taking Charge. New York: Harper.

Binning, J. F., & Barrett, G. V. (1989). Validity of personnel decisions: A conceptual analysis of the inferential and evidential bases. Journal of Applied Psychology, 74(3), 478-494. DOI:

Bledow, R., & Frese, M. (2009). A situational judgment test of personal initiative and its relationship to performance. Personnel Psychology, 62(2), 229-258. DOI:

Callinan, M., Robertson, I.T. (2000). Work sample testing. International Journal of Selection and Assessment 8, 248–260. 2389.00154 DOI:

Christian, M.S., Edwards, B.D., Bradley, J.C. (2010). Situational judgement tests: constructs assessed and a meta-analysis of their criterion-related validities. Personnel Psychology 63, 83–117. 6570.2009.01163.x DOI:

Cohen, A. R. (1984). Managing for Excellence: the Guide to Developing High Performance in Contemporary Organizations: New York; Toronto: Wiley.

Craig, S. B., & Gustafson, S. B. (1998). Perceived leader integrity scale: An instrument for assessing employee perceptions of leader integrity. The Leadership Quarterly, 9(2), 127-145. DOI:

Denison, D. R., Hooijberg, R., & Quinn, R. E. (1995). Paradox and performance: Toward a theory of behavioral complexity in managerial leadership. Organization Science, 6(5), 524-540. DOI:

Fertig, S. (2009). The Incremental Validity of a Situational Judgement Test (SJT) Relative to Personality and Cognitive Ability to Predict Managerial Performance. Stellenbosch: University of Stellenbosch.

Fisher, D. M., Good, S., Toich, M. J., & Schutt, E. (2021). Measuring moral disengagement with a situational judgment test: Advancing the assessment of an important workplace construct. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 29(1), 114-133. DOI:

Furr, R. M. (2021). Psychometrics: An Introduction. SAGE publications.

George, B. (2010). True North: Discover your Authentic Leadership (Vol. 143.). John Wiley & Sons.,+B.+(2010).+True+north:+Discover+your+authentic+leadership+(Vol.+143)&ots=PSc6kNahuu&sig=AJtG_SJwLUgqL8Qdc8x0aOWMQig&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q&f=false

Haynes, S. N., Richard, D., & Kubany, E. S. (1995). Content validity in psychological assessment: A functional approach to concepts and methods. Psychological Assessment, 7(3), 238-247. DOI:

Howell, J. M., & Avolio, B. J. (1995). The ethics of charismatic leadership: submission or liberation? Academy of Management Perspectives, 6(2). DOI:

Kanter, R. (1985). Supporting innovation and venture development in established companies. Journal of Business Venturing, 1(1), 47-60. DOI:

Kirkpatick, S. A., & Locke, E. A. (1991). Leadership: do traits matter? Academy of Management Perspectives, 5(2), 48-60. DOI:

Latham, G. P., & Saari, L. M. (1979). Importance of supportive relationships in goal setting. Journal of Applied Psychology, 64(2), 151-156. DOI:

Lennick, D., & Kiel, F. (2007). Moral Intelligence: Enhancing Business Performance and Leadership Success. Pearson Prentice Hall.,+D.,+%26+Kiel,+F.+(2007).+Moral+intelligence:+Enhancing+business+performance+and+leadership+success:&ots=5PTN7cvK23&sig=aN5fXdPegORw-caquaQ9FXAFSSA&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=Lennick%2C%20D.%2C%20%26%20Kiel%2C%20F.%20(2007).%20Moral%20intelligence%3A%20Enhancing%20business%20performance%20and%20leadership%20success%3A&f=false

Lievens, F., De Corte, W., & Schollaert, E. (2008). A closer look at the frame-of-reference effect in personality scale scores and validity. Journal of Applied Psychology, 93(2), 268-279. DOI:

Lievens, F., & Motowidlo, S. J. (2016). Situational judgment tests: From measures of situational judgment to measures of general domain knowledge. Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 9(1), 3-22. DOI:

McDaniel, M. A., Hartman, N. S., Whetzel, D. L., & GRUBB III, W. L. (2007). Situational judgment tests, response instructions, and validity: A meta?analysis. Personnel Psychology, 60(1), 63-91. DOI:

Mills, J. P., & Boardley, I. D. (2017). Development and initial validation of an indirect measure of transformational leadership integrity. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 32, 34-46. DOI:

Moorman, R. H., Darnold, T. C., Priesemuth, M., & Dunn, C. P. (2012). Toward the measurement of perceived leader integrity: Introducing a multidimensional approach. Journal of Change Management, 12(4), 383-398. DOI:

Motowidlo, S. J., Dunnette, M. D., & Carter, G. W. (1990). An alternative selection procedure: The low-fidelity simulation. Journal of Applied Psychology, 75, 640- 647. DOI:

Nosek, B. A., & Smith, F. L. (2007). A multitrait multimethod validation of the Implicit Association Test: implicit and explicit attitudes are related but distinct constructs. Experimental psychology, 54(1),14. DOI:

Palanski, M. E., & Yammarino, F. J. (2007). Integrity and leadership:: clearing the conceptual confusion. European Management Journal, 25(3), 171-184. DOI:

Parry, K. W., & Proctor-Thomson, S. B. (2002). Perceived integrity of transformational leaders in organisational settings. Journal of Business Ethics, 35(2), 75-96. DOI:

Peterson, D. (2004). Perceived leader integrity and ethical intentions of subordinates. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 25(1), 7-23. DOI:

Peus, C., Braun, S., & Frey, D. (2013). Situation-based measurement of the full range of leadership model, Development and validation of a situational judgment test. The Leadership Quarterly, 24(5), 777-795. DOI:

Podsakoff, P. M., & Todor, W. D. (1985). Relationships between leader reward and punishment behavior and group processes and productivity. Journal of Management, 11(1), 55-73. DOI:

Price, T. L. (2003). The ethics of authentic transformational leadership. The Leadership Quarterly, 14(1), 67-81. DOI:

Rockstuhl, T., Ang, S., Ng, K.-Y., Lievens, F., & Van Dyne, L. (2015). Putting judging situations into situational judgment tests: Evidence from intercultural multimedia SJTs. Journal of Applied Psychology, 100(2), 464-480. DOI:

Seltzer, J., & Bass, B. M. (1990). Transformational leadership: Beyond initiation and consideration. Journal of Management, 16(4), 693-703. DOI:

Simons, T. L. (1999). Behavioral integrity as a critical ingredient for transformational leadership. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 12(2), 94-104. DOI:

Vroom, V. H., & Yetton, P. W. (1973). Leadership and Decision Making. University of Pittsburgh Press, USA. DOI:

Yammarino, F. J., & Bass, B. M. (1990). Transformational leadership and multiple levels of analysis. Human Relations, 43(10), 975-995. DOI:

Yukl, G. (2008). How leaders influence organizational effectiveness. The Leadership Quarterly, 19(6), 708-722. DOI:

Yukl, G., & Van Fleet, D. D. (1992). Theory and research on leadership in organizations. In M. D. Dunnette & L. M. Hough (Eds.), Handbook of industrial and organizational psychology (pp. 147–197). Consulting Psychologists Press.

Yusoff, M. S. B. (2019). ABC of content validation and content validity index calculation. Education in Medicine Journal, 11(2), 49–54. DOI:



How to Cite

Rafique, A., & Ghazal, D. S. (2022). Content Validation of a Situational Judgment Test of Manager’s Integrity: A Qualitative Approach. Journal of Professional & Applied Psychology, 3(2), 306–318.